Sep 27, 2023  

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DH 118 - Head and Neck Anatomy

Credits: 3

Presents anatomy of the human head and neck and surrounding structures. Emphasizes basic anatomical terminology, landmarks, and a complete description of the skeletal, muscular, lymphatic, vascular, and innervation systems.

Prerequisite(s): DH 100 , DH 101  each with a C (2.0) minimum grade and admission to the Dental Hygiene Program.
Corequisite(s): DH 110 , DH 111 , DH 112 , DH 114 , DH 115 , DH 116  
Lecture Hours: 30 Lab Hours: 45
Meets MTA Requirement: None
Pass/NoCredit: No

Outcomes and Objectives Outcome 1:     Define and use anatomical terms, directional reference terms and anatomical planes of section. The student will be able to:

     A.          Correctly define and use anatomical terms.

     B.          Define each of the following directional reference terms:

                  1.    superior (cranial)

                  2.    inferior (caudal)

                  3.    superficial

                  4.    deep

                  5.    proximal

                  6.    distal

                  7.    anterior (ventral)

                  8.    posterior (dorsal)

                  9.    lateral

                  10.  medial

                  11.  external

                  12.  internal

                  13.  ipsilateral

                  14.  contralateral

     C.          Define through imaginary anatomical planes of section:

                  1.    Midsagittal plane/median

                  2.    Sagittal plane

                  3.    Transverse plane/horizontal

     D.         Define each of the following terms:

                  1.    cross section

                  2.    articulation

     E.          Define and differentiate between systematic and regional views and approaches to the study of anatomy.

2.    Identify and explain the function of the various regions and associated surface landmarks of the head and neck.

     A.          Oral Region

                  1.    vermilion zone

                  2.    vermilion border

                  3.    philtrum

                  4.    tubercle of the upper lip

                  5.    labial commissure

     B.          Oral Cavity

                  1.    lingual

                  2.    palatal

                  3.    buccal

                  4.    facial/labial

                  5.    labial mucosa

                  6.    buccal mucosa

                  7.    parotid papilla

                  8.    vestibules

                  9.    alveolar mucosa

                  10.  mucobuccal fold

                  11.  labial frenum

                  12.  gingiva

                  13.  attached gingiva

                  14.  mucogingival junction

                  15.  marginal gingiva

                  16.  sulcus

                  17.  interdental gingiva

     C.          Palate

                  1.    hard palate

                  2.    soft palate

                  3.    median palatine raphe

                  4.    incisive papilla

                  5.    palatine rugue

                  6.    uvula

                  7.    retromolar pad

     D.         Tongue

                  1.    base of the tongue

                  2.    body of the tongue

                  3.    apex of the tongue

                  4.    lingual papillae

                  5.    dorsal surface

                  6.    lingual sulcus

                  7.    filiform lingual papillae

                  8.    fungiform lingual papillae

                  9.    circumvallate lingual papillae

                  10.  sulcus terminalis

                  11.  foramen cecum

                  12.  lingual tonsil

                  13.  deep lingual veins

     E.          Floor of the Mouth

                  1.    lingual frenum

                  2.    sublingual fold

                  3.    sublingual caruncle

     F.          Pharynx

                  1.    pharynx

                  2.    nasopharynx

                  3.    oropharynx

                  4.    anterior tonsillar pillar

                  5.    posterior tonsillar pillar

                  6.    palatine tonsils

 3.    Identify all the bones of the skull. In addition the student will be able to identify the landmarks foramen and articulations for               
        each bone in the skull.

     A.          Define the skeletal system and list its primary functions.

     B.          Define and identify from a histological section of bone, slide, or drawing:

                  1.    Haversian Canal

                  2.    Canaliculi

                  3.    Lacunae

     C.          Define each of the following and then compare and contrast them in terms of their function and location:

                  1.    Osteocyte

                  2.    Osteoclast

                  3.    Osteoblast

     D.         Define and give an example of each of these bone markings:

                  1.    fossa

                  2.    sinus

                  3.    foramen

                  4.    meatus

                  5.    fontanel

                  6.    condyle

                  7.    tuberosity

                  8.    spine

                  9.    tubercle

                  10.  process

     E.          Identify and describe the function of the Atlas C1 and the Axis C2 vertebra.

     F.          Define and identify on a skull, model or diagram, the following sutures:

                  1.    coronal

                  2.    sagittal

                  3.    lambdoidal

     G.         On a series of diagrams/model bones, be able to identify correctly the following bones of the skull:

                  1.    frontal

                  2.    parietal

                  3.    occipital

                  4.    temporal

                  5.    sphenoid

                  6.    ethmoid

                  7.    nasal

                  8.    lacrimal

                  9.    maxilla

                  10.  zygomatic

                  11.  mandible

                  12.  palatine

                  13.  vomer

                  14.  superior concha (turbinates)

                  15.  middle concha

                  16.  inferior concha

     H.         On diagrams, models, and/or skeletal material, correctly identify the following foramen, canals, or openings:

                  1.    mental

                  2.    mandibular (foramen & canal)

                  3.    infraorbital (foramen & canal)

                  4.    optic

                  5.    magnum

                  6.    jugular

                  7.    carotid

                  8.    external auditory meatus

                  9.    internal auditory meatus

                  10.  rotundum

                  11.  ovale

                  12.  spinous

                  13.  optic fissure

                  14.  supraorbital - foramen/notch

                  15.  nasopalatine/incisive

                  16.  hypoglossal canal

                  17.  superior orbital fissure

                  18.  inferior orbital fissure

                  19.  greater palatine

                  20.  lesser palatine

                  21.  cecum

                  22.  posterior superior alveolar (P.S.A.)

                  23.  transverse

     I.          On diagrams, models, or skulls, identify these landmarks.

                  1.    frontal: a. supraorbital ridge, b. orbital plate, c. glabella

                  2.    occipital: a. basilar process, b. occipital condyles

                  3.    temporal: a. zygomatic process, b. glenoid fossa, c. styloid process, d. mastoid process, e. articular tubercle/eminence, f. mastoid   
                         notch/digastric notch

                  4.    sphenoid: a. lesser wings, b. greater wings, c. sella turcica, d. pterygoid fossa, e. hamulus, f. pterygoid plates (medial & lateral)

                  5.    nasal bone

                  6.    lacrimal: a. lacrimal groove, b. nasolacrimal duct

                  7.    ethmoid: a. perpendicular plate, b. cribriform plate, c. nasal conchae, d. crista galli, e.ethmoid cells, f. orbital plate

                  8.    zygoma: a. temporal process, b. maxillary process, c. frontal process, d. orbital plate

                  9.    zygomatic arch

                  10.  maxilla: a. palatine process, b. alveolar process, c. zygomatic process, d. frontal process, e. maxillary tuberosity, f. canine fossa &
                         eminence, g. infraorbital groove, h.orbital plate, i. incisive suture

                  11.  palatine: a. horizontal plates, b. vertical plates, c. transverse suture, d. median palatine suture

                  12.  mandible: a. mental protuberance, b. mandibular symphysis, c. body of the mandible, d. mandibular angle, e. ramus, f. condyle, g.
                         neck of the condyle, h. pterygoid fovea, i. mandibular notch, j. coronoid process, k. coronoid notch, l. external oblique line, m. alveolar
                         process, n. buccal shelf, o. retromolar triangle, p. retromolar fossa, q.interdental septa, r. genial tubercles, s. digastric fossa, t.
                         mylohyoid line, u. lingula, v. submandibular fossa, w. sublingual fossa

                  13.  Generalized regions: a. temporal fossa, b. infratemporal fossa, c. cranial fossas: 1)anterior cranial fossa, 2) middle cranial fossa, 3)
                         posterior cranial fossa

     J.          Define and be able to locate the following sinuses:

                  1.    maxillary

                  2.    ethmoid

                  3.    sphenoid

                  4.    frontal

                  5.    mastoid

     K.          Define and be able to identify the following venous sinuses:

                  1.    sigmoid

                  2.    superior sagittal

                  3.    other

     L.          State the location of the following specialized bones of the skull/neck:

                  1.    auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)

                  2.    sutural (Wormian)

                  3.    hyoid

     M.         Define and be able to identify the Temporomandibular Joint, Superior Temporal Line, and  Foramen Lacerum

     N.         List injection sites for maxillary and mandibular teeth and surrounding tissues.

  Outcome 4:    Identify all the muscles of the head and neck indicating points of attachment, function, innervation and vascularization for
                          each muscles.

     A.          Define each of the following terms as it relates to skeletal muscle:

                  1.    tendons

                  2.    aponeuroses

                  3.    facia

                  4.    antagonist

                  5.    synergist

                  6.    origin

                  7.    insertion

                  8.    ligament

                  9.    raphe

                  10.  sphincter

     B.          Identify the following muscles on diagrams and models and list their origin, insertion (points of attachments), action (s), major innervation
                  and vascularization.

                  1.    masseter

                  2.    temporalis

                  3.    medial and lateral pterygoids

                  4.    platysma

                  5.    sternocleidomastoid

                  6.    trapezius

                  7.    infrahyoid muscles: a. sternohyoid, b. thyrohyoid, c. omohyoid, d. sternothyroid

                  8.    suprahyoid muscles: a. digastric, b. geniohyoid, c. mylohyoid, d. stylohyoid

                  9.    orbicularis oculi

                  10.  levator labi - superiorus

                  11.  zygomaticus - major and minor

                  12.  buccinator

                  13.  risorius

                  14.  platysma

                  15.  orbicularis oris

                  16.  mentalis

                  17.  epicranial

                  18.  frontal

                  19.  occipitalis

                  20.  articular

                  21.  depressor anguli oris

                  22.  depressor labi inferioris

                  23.  extrinsic muscles of the tongue: a. genioglossus, b. hypoglossus, c. styloglossus

                  24.  muscles of the palate: a. tensor veli palatini, b. levator veli palatini, c. musculus uvula, d. palatoglossus

     C.          List and/or identify all the muscles involved in the following groups of muscles:

                  1.    muscles of mastication

                  2.    extrinsic muscles of tongue

                  3.    muscles of facial expression

                  4.    muscles of the scalp

                  5.    accessory muscles of mastication

                  6.    muscles of the soft palate

                  7.    muscles of the throat/neck

5.    Identify all the arterial branches of the external and internal carotids and describe what structures are suggested by each of the

     A.          The External Carotid artery and each of its branches on a model or diagram:

                  1.    Superior Thyroid artery

                  2.    Ascending Pharyngeal artery

                  3.    Lingual artery

                  4.    Occipital artery

                  5.    Facial (external maxillary) artery

                  6.    Posterior Auricular artery

                  7.    Maxillary (internal maxillary) artery

                  8.    Superficial Temporal artery

     B.          Describe the structures supplied by each of the arteries listed above.

     C.          Identify on a model or diagram the branches of the Facial artery:

                  1.    Ascending palatine

                  2.    Submental

                  3.    Submandibular, Sublingual

                  4.    Inferior Labial

                  5.    Superior Labial

                  6.    Lateral Nasal

                  7.    Angular

                  8.    Note: anastomoses with the Ophthalmic artery of Internal Carotid

     D.         Identify on a model and/or diagram the branches of the Maxillary Artery.

                  1.    Infraorbital Artery

                  2.    Superior Alveolar Artery

                  3.    Inferior Alveolar Artery

     E.          Describe the structures supplied by each of the arteries listed above.

     F.          Explain the clinical significance of arterial connections and venous connections in the head and neck.

     I.           Identify on a model or diagram the following veins:

                  1.    Internal Jugular vein

                  2.    Superficial Temporal vein

                  3.    Maxillary vein

                  4.    Posterior Auricular vein

                  5.    Facial vein

                  6.    Occipital

                  7.    Lingual

                  8.    Ascending Pharyngeal vein

                  9.    Superior Thyroid vein

                  10.  External Jugular vein

                  11.  Anterior Jugular vein

6.    Locate and identify all the major groups of lymph nodes of the head and neck. In addition the student will be able to integrate the
       knowledge about 
head and neck lymphatics into clinical practice.

     A.          Identify on a diagram and describe lymphatic drainage pathways of:

                  1.    superficial lymph nodes of the head and neck: a. occipital nodes, b. posterior auricular nodes (Retro), c. anterior auricular nodes, d.
                         superficial parotid nodes, e.facial nodes, f. submental nodes, g. submandibular nodes, h. external jugular nodes, i. anterior jugular

                  2.    deep cervical lymph nodes - superior & inferior groups: a. retropharyngeal, b. deep parotid nodes

     B.          List the “collar” nodes.

     C.          On a diagram and/or given situation, follow lymphatic drainage.

     D.          Explain the clinical significance of lymphatic drainage patterns.

     E.          List the reasons for one in your profession to have knowledge of lymphatic and the importance of an examination of the lymph nodes of the
                   head and neck.

 7.    Name the twelve cranial nerves, individual exit site from the skull and particular functions. Emphasis will be placed on the functions of
        the cranial 
nerves important to dentistry.

     A.          List by name and roman numeral each of the following 12 pairs of cranial nerves; Indicate if they are afferent, efferent, or mixed. State the
                   functions for each nerve.

                  1.    Olfactory

                  2.    Optic

                  3.    Oculomotor

                  4.    Trochlear

                  5.    Trigeminal and its major branches: a. Ophthalmic, b. Maxillary, c. Mandibular

                  6.    Abducens

                  7.    Facial and its major branches

                  8.    Acoustic/Auditor/Vestibulocochlear

                  9.    Glossopharyngeal

                  10.  Vagus

                  11.  Accessory

                  12.  Hypoglossal

     B.          Associate the site of exit from the skull for each cranial nerve.

     C.          List the four pairs of nerves that are of particular significance to the dental profession.

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