Oct 06, 2022  
2017-2018 
    
2017-2018 [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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DH 214W - Dental Materials

Credits: 4


Presents theory and clinical application related to properties and manipulation of dental materials and devices used in dental procedures.

Prerequisite(s): DH 124B DH 130 DH 131 DH 135  and LWA 206B  each with a "C" (2.0) minimum grade.
Corequisite(s): DH 210W DH 213 DH 215 DH 216W DH 219W  
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 45
Meets MTA Requirement: None
Pass/NoCredit: No

Outcomes and Objectives  1.    Distinguish the properties of a good dental amalgam and identify amalgam restorations that need polishing and know how
        to polish these restorations.

     A.          List the ingredients with their percentages in the composition of a conventional amalgam by common name and chemical
                   symbols.

     B.          Explain the role of each ingredient in a conventional amalgam.

     C.          Explain the 3 classifications of an amalgam by particle shape.

     D.          Indicate the forms in which amalgam alloys are available and the dispensing equipment required for each form.

     E.          Explain how dimensional change, strength, creep and physical properties effect an amalgam.

     F.           List the 8 major items that cause an amalgam to fail.

     G.          Explain the following terms:

                  1.    Alloy

                  2.    Condensation

                  3.    Eutectic

                  4.    Admixed Alloy

                  5.    Creep

                  6.    Intermetallic Alloy

                  7.    Mulling

                  8.    Amalgam

                  9.    Setting

                  10.  Amalgamated

                  11.  Trituration

                  12.  Amalgamators

                  13.  Plasticity

     H.         Explain what tarnish and corrosion are and their relationship to amalgam.

     I.           Explain why the time frames of 3 to 5 hours and 24 to 48 hours are important when handling amalgam.

     J.          Discuss mercury toxicity as it relates to dental personnel.

     K.          Explain what a fracture looks like and list 4 item's that may cause fracturing.

     L.          Explain the following terms in relationship to improperly carved restorations.

                  1.    Flash

                  2.    Overhang

                  3.    Open margin

                  4.    Undercontoured

                  5.    Overcontoured

     M.         Identify and explain the purposes of a matrix band, the parts of the retainer and wedges.

     N.         Demonstrate the placement of a retainer, band and wedge on Class II cavity prep.

     O.         Demonstrate the technique for mixing, placing, condensing and carving an amalgam restoration.

     P.          Explain the rational for amalgam polishing.

     Q.         Demonstrate one technique of amalgam polishing using burs, stones, rubber points, and polishing agents.

2.    Produce and accrucately analysis an impression, by the texture of the alginate and the anatomy of the impression.

     A.          Explain what an impression is and why are impressions taken.

     B.          List the ingredients of alginate and explain the function of each ingredient

     C.          Explain the following properties of alginate:

                  1.    Mixing and setting times

                  2.    Dimensional stability

                  3.    Viscosity

                  4.    Strength

     D.         Explain the terms:

                  1.    syneresis

                  2.    imbibition

     E.          Describe the difference between a Type I and II alginate material

     F.          Demonstrate the technique for mixing, spatulation, and filling an impression tray, and taking a maxillary and mandibular
                  impression.
3.     Differentiate the various gypsum products and their uses, plus produce various models in the different types of gypsum
        products according to 
specific criteria.

     A.          Define the terms: model, cast, die, negative reproduction and positive reproduction.

     B.          Compare the uses of plaster, stone, and improved stone.

     C.          Compare the physical forms of plaster, stone, and improved stone and describe briefly how each form is manufactured.

     D.          Relate the term “excess water” to the manipulation and properties of plaster, stone and improved stone.

     E.          Describe the feel and look of gypsum products that are in the initial and final setting stages.

     F.          Describe hygroscopic expansion of gypsum materials.

     G.         Describe how the following effect plaster, stone, and improved stone:

                  1.    Compressive strength

                  2.    Dimensional change

                  3.    Abrasion resistance

                  4.    Tensile strength

     H.         Describe the effects of water/powder ration on initial setting time, strength, and setting expansion.

     I.           Describe the effects of spatulation on setting time and expansion.

     J.          Describe the effects of temperature and humidity on setting reaction of gypsum.

     K.          Demonstrate the step-by-step manipulation of plaster and stone in pouring up models.

     L.          Demonstrate the trimming of full orthodontic and laboratory models and the trimming of teeth only models.

4.    Classify the various impression materials by their propertiesand functions.

     A.          List the nine physical properties of an acceptable impression material.

     B.          Explain the function of each of these items:

                  1.    Inelastic compounds

                  2.    Elastometric compounds

                  3.    Primary impression

                  4.    Secondary, corrective, wash or final impression

                  5.    Impression compound

                  6.    Tray compound

                  7.    Zinc Oxide Eugenol impression paste

                  8.    Agar Hydrocolloid impression material

     C.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Reversible

                  2.    Hydro/colloid

                  3.    Agar

                  4.    Tempered

                  5.    Sol

                  6.    Elastomers/elastomeric

     D.         Describe the difference between rigid and flexible impression material and recognize when each is used and specific types.

     E.          List the composition and setting reaction of each of the elastomers.

     F.          Compare accuracy, acceptability, and ease of working for all the elastomers.

     G.         Differentiate between condensation and addition type of silicones.

     H.         Recognize the advantages and disadvantages in working with each of the elastomers.

     I.           Give the principal use of a rubber base impression material.

     J.          Give the shelf life for these elastomers and explain how they should be stored.

     K.          Establish a classification system for all impression materials based on:

                  1.    Uses

                  2.    Method of hardening

                  3.    Elastic characteristics

                  4.    Ease of working

                  5.    Accuracy

     L.          Demonstrate the proper way to prepare a tray for elastomers.

     M.         Demonstrate the dispensing, mixing, loading a tray, and loading a syringe using an elastomeric compound.

     N.         Demonstrate the filling of an impression tray using the Automix Gum system.

5.    Determine how synthetic resins are made for use in dentistry and determine how to manipulate the synthetic resins to make
       mouth guards, bleaching 
trays and sealants.

     A.          Define what a synthetic resin is.

     B.          Explain the difference between a thermoplastic and a thermoset resin: give at least one example of each.

     C.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    mer or monomer

                  2.    Polymer

                  3.    Curing

                  4.    Polymerization

     D.         Explain the following polymerization techniques and give at least one example of each:

                  1.    Addition

                  2.    Condensation

                  3.    Cross-linking

                  4.    Co polymerization

                  5.    Auto polymerization

     E.          Explain what Methyl Methacrylate is and why it is so important to dentistry.

     F.           Explain the difference between rebasing and relining a denture.

     G.          Explain why silicates and direct filled acrylic resins are no longer recommended for restorative work.

     H.          Explain why a direct filled composite resin is used in today’s dentistry.

     I.            Explain the difference between the four types of filled resins (microfil, hybrid, conventional, and small-particle); list
                   composition, uses and properties of each.

     J.          Explain the rationale for using an acid etch, bonding agents and glazing agents with both restorative and adhesive resins.

     K.          State the criteria to consider in selecting a tooth for sealant application.

     L.          Explain the role of sealants in a total preventive program.

     M.         Explain the benefits of sealant on permanent and primary teeth.

     N.         State the factors to determine if a tooth is sound

     O.         State the length of time the sealant will last and the factors affecting the length of time.

     P.          Explain the need for reexamination and replacement.

     Q.         Classify the differentiate types of sealant materials.

     R.          Distinguish the different chemicals found in a sealant kit and how they work.

     S.          Explain the mechanism by which the sealant attaches itself to the tooth.

     T.          Explain what happens to the demineralized enamel if the sealant is lost.

     U.         Demonstrate the procedural steps and explain the ways behind each step.

     V.          Demonstrate the construction of a custom fitted mouth protector and explain the importance of this type of mouth protector
                  verses the over the counter type.

     W.        Demonstrate the construction of a custom-fitted trays for bleaching.

6.    Determine the need for isolation using a rubber dam and be ableto place and remove a rubber dam.

     A.          State the main purpose for using a rubber dam.

     B.          List the four other reasons for the use of the rubber dam.

     C.          Discuss how you would prepare the patient for the application of the rubber dam.

     D.          List the steps in preparation of the rubber dam.

     E.          Demonstrate the steps in the application and removal of the rubber dam.

     F.          Explain the different fields of isolation for adults and children.

7.    Discuss uses, compositions, functions, factors that affect setting reaction of the various cements used in dentistry, plus proper manipulation of a zinc polycarboxylate, glass ionomer and a zinc oxide eugenol cement for uses in cementation and making temporary restorations.

     A.          List the six purposes and four limitations of cements.

     B.          List the specific uses of each cement, plus discuss the factors that would influence the setting time, the mechanical properties
                   and their compatibility properties.

     C.          Explain the purposes of bases, liners and varnishes in a cavity prep.

     D.          List the five basic characteristics of an ideal temporary restoration.

     E.          List the four purposes for using a temporary restoration.

     F.          State the maximum length of time a temporary can stay in the mouth.

     G.         List the types of cavity preparations, which can successfully hold a temporary.

     H.         State the two most common used temporary materials.

     I.           Demonstrate the manipulation, placement and carving a Class I and Class II temporary restoration.

     J.          Demonstrate the manipulation of a ZOE cement for use as a luting agent in the cementation of an ION Crown.

     K.          Explain the steps involved in removing a temporary.

     L.          Explain the steps and the reason behind using each of the dental instruments needed for placing a temporary restoration.

8.    Express to patients why and how various alloys are used in dentistry.

     A.          Explain the function of each of the following terms:

                  1.    Metal

                  2.    Pure Metal

                  3.    Gold

                  4.    Gold Foil

                  5.    Solid Solution Alloy

                  6.    Noble metals

                  7.    Passive Elements

                  8.    Base Metal Alloy

                  9.    Solidification

                  10.  Cold Working

                  11.  Forge

                  12.  Cast

                  13.  Wrought Metal

                  14.  Annealing

     B.          List 5 items that add in the process of corrosion.

     C.          Explain the 5 classifications given to casting gold.

     D.          Explain what a coping is.

     E.          Explain how we measure gold in dentistry.

     F.           Explain the reason behind adding the following metals to gold:

                  1.    Copper

                  2.    Silver

                  3.    Platinum

                  4.    Palladium

                  5.    Zinc

     G.         Explain the difference between thermal and hygroscopical expansion.

     H.         Define the following terms:

                  1.    Sprue

                  2.    Flux

                  3.    Pickling

                  4.    Quenched

     I.          Sketch an outline of the steps involved with casting a restoration.

9.    Summarize the function of the various waxes used in dentistry.

     A.          Define the 3 classifications; pattern waxes, processing waxes, and impression waxes.

     B.          Describe the preparation of wax pattern for investment.

10. State the major purposes and demonstrate the various orthodontic procedures that are within the scope of practice for a
      Registered Dental Hygienist in the State of Michigan.

     A.          Differentiate between interceptive and corrective phases of orthodontic treatment.

     B.          Identify the following basic orthodontic instruments and explain their purposes:

                  1.    separating pliers

                  2.    band-removing pliers

                  3.    band biter

                  4.    band seater/adapter

                  5.    hemostat

                  6.    ligature cutter

                  7.    ligature tying pliers

                  8.    distal end cutting pliers

                  9.    weingart pliers

     C.          Demonstrate the proper technique for:

                  1.    taking intra-oral measurements using a cephalometric radiograph

                  2.    placement and removal of separators

                  3.    trail sizing of orthodontic bands

                  4.    placement and removal of ligatures

                  5.    placement and removal of arch wires

                  6.    placement and removal of elastics

                  7.    debonding a tooth

     D.         Discuss the dental hygienist’s role in an orthodontic office.



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