May 21, 2024  
2018 - 2019 Catalog 
2018 - 2019 Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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DH 122 - Oral Histology and Embryology

Credits: 3

Provides theory of the embryological development of the oral cavity and identification and classifications of normal and abnormal conditions of the oral cavity and supporting structures. Includes microscopic study of the histology of the human dentition and the surrounding supporting structures.

Prerequisite(s): DH 110 , DH 111 , DH 112 , DH 114 , DH 115 , DH 116  , DH 118  each with a C (2.0) minimum grade.
Corequisite(s): DH 120 , DH 121 , DH 123 , DH 123L , DH 124A  , DH 125 , LW 206A  
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: None
Pass/NoCredit: No

Outcomes and Objectives 1.     Describe a cell and the four basic tissues, the tissues of the oral cavity and mucosa.

     A.          Define each of the following terms:

                  1.    Histology

                  2.    Embryology

                  3.    Cell

                  4.    Tissue

                  5.    Organ

                  6.    Organ Systems

                  7.    Organism

                  8.    Differentiation

                  9.    Oral Mucosa

     B.          Explain the structure and contents of an individual cell.

     C.          List and describe the four basic types of tissues. Include functions for each tissue.

     D.          Describe the two basic tissues of the oral mucosa.

     E.          List and describe the three types of mucosa in the oral cavity.

2.    Describe the stages of prenatal development.

     A.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Sperm

                  2.    Ovum

                  3.    Fertilization

                  4.    Implantation

                  5.    Meiosis

                  6.    Mitosis

                  7.    Zygote

                  8.    Blastocyst

                  9.    Morula

                  10.  Trophoblast

                  11.  Teratogens

     B.          List five examples of teratogens

     C.          Describe the problems teratogen may cause

     D.         Dsecribe what occurs during the preimplantation period.

     E.         Describe how Down's syndrome occurs.

     F.          List the physical characteristics of Down’s syndrome and describe how oral cavity is affected.

     G.         Describe an ectopic pregnancy.

     H.         Draw and label a blastocyst.

     I.           Define and indicate what each area does or what it will eventually become.

     J.          Describe how the disc develops from a bilaminar disc to a trilaminar disc.

     K.          Describe the neural crests, where they originate from, where they migrate to, and what they develop into in the future.

     L.          Describe somites and explain how they develop.

     M.         Draw and describe the process of the development of the future spinal cord.

     N.         Identify time period for development of the future spinal cord.

     O.         Define notochord.

     P.          Describe why week 4 is a critical time period in development

3:    Describe the development of the palate, nasal cavity, nasal septum and tongue.

     A.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Stomodeum

                  2.    Oropharyngeal Membrane

                  3.    Primitive Oral Pharynx

                  4.    Primary Palate

                  5.    Secondary Palaate

                  6.    Mental Symphysis

                  7.    Mandibular Processes

                  8.    Midline

                  9.    First Branchial Arach

                  10.  Neural Crest

                  11.  Ectoderm

                  12.  Endoderm

                  13.  Primitive Mouth

     B.          Describe what happens during week four to the oropharyngeal membrane.

     C.          Describe how the mandibular arch develops.

     D.          Identify the time frame for development of the mandibular arch.

     E.          Describe the three stages of development of the palate.

     F.           Identify the time frame for development of the palate.

     G.          Draw and label the hard and soft palate.

     H.          Identify developmental disturbances that may occur during the development of the palate.

     I.           Describe the formation of the upper lip.

     J.          Identify timeframes for development of the tongue.

     K.          Identify branchial arches that form the tongue.

     L.          Describe the formation of the tongue.

     M.         Draw and label a diagram of the development of the tongue.

     N.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Tuberculum Impar

                  2.    Primitive Pharynx

                  3.    Lateral Brachial Arch

                  4.    First Branchial Arch

                  5.    Anterior 2/3 of the Tongue or Body

                  6.    Median Lingual Sulcus

                  7.    Copula

                  8.    Anterior Swellings

                  9.    First Branchial Arches

                  10.  Sulcus Terminals

                  11.  Oropharynx

                  12.  Foramen Cecum

 4.    Explain morphological and histological structures of Dentin and Pulp.

     A.          Define each of the following terms:

                  1.    Peritubular Dentin

                  2.    Intertubular Dentin

                  3.    Mantle Dentin

                  4.    Circumpupal Dentin

                  5.    Primary Dentin

                  6.    Secondary Dentin

                  7.    Reactive Dentin

                  8.    Sclerotic Dentin

                  9.    Interglobular Dentin

                  10.  Tomes Granular Layer

                  11.  Imbrication Lines of Von Ebner

                  12.  Contour Lines of Owen

                  13.  Neonatal Line

                  14.  Man-made Contour Lines

                  15.  Dead Tract

                  16.  Korff’s Fibers

                  17.  High Tubular Density

                  18.  Tubular Diameters

                  19.  Course & Branching of Tubules

                  20.  Contents of Tubules

                  21.  Chemical Compositions

                  22.  Functions of Pulp

                  23.  Morphology of Pulp Structure

                  24.  Structural Components

                  25.  True Denticles

                  26.  Pulp Stones

     B.          Describe the embryonic origin of pulp.

     C.          Identify the following parts of the pulp chamber.

                  1.    Coronal

                  2.    Radicular

                  3.    Apical Foramen

                  4.    Accessory Canals

     D.         Describe the innervation and vascularization of the pulp

     E.          State the structural components of:

                  1.    Cells

                  2.    Fibrous Matrix

                  3.    Ground Substance

                  4.    Other

     F.          List the various functions of the pulp tissue

     G.         Explain true and false denticles.

     H.         Discuss the various changes that take place in the pulp tissues due to age.

      I.          Discuss the various diseases of the pulp tissue.

5.    Describe the various characteristics of Enamel including the histological characteristics.

     A.          Define each of the following terms:

                  1.    Enamel Prisms

                  2.    Prism Sheaths

                  3.    Orientation of Enamel Prisms

                  4.    Gnarled Enamel

                  5.    Hydroxyapatite Crystallites

                  6.    Development of Enamel Prisms

                  7.    Tomes’ Process

                  8.    Prismless Enamel

                  9.    Curvatures of Prisms

                  10.  Incremental Lines of Retzius

                  11.  Neonatal Line

                  12.  Vertical Cross Striations

                  13.  Perikymata

                  14.  Dentino-Enamel Junction

                  15.  Enamel Spindles

                  16.  Tufts

                  17.  Lamellae

                  18.  Chemical Composition

6.    Describe the various histological characteristics of cementum, periodontal ligament and Alveolar Bone.

     A.          Define each of the following terms:

                  1.    Sharpey’s Fibers

                  2.    Cementoid

                  3.    Acellular Cementum

                  4.    Cellular Cementum

                  5.    Cementocytes

                  6.    Cementoclasts

                  7.    Lacunae

                  8.    Canaliculi

                  9.    Arrest Lines

                  10.  Cementicles

                  11.  Free

                  12.  Attached

                  13.  Alveolar Bone

                  14.  Basal Bone

                  15.  Lamina Dura

                  16.  Osteocytes

                  17.  Osteoid

                  18.  Chemical Compositions

     B.          List the components of Cementum and Alveolar bone.

     C.          List and explain the two groups of collagen fibers in cementum and in alveolar bone.

     D.          Explain the development of cementum.

     E.          Briefly explain the development of alveolar bone.

7.    Describe the functional and histological characteristics of salivary galands and lymphoid tissue.

     A.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Exocrine Gland

                  2.    Salivary Gland

                  3.    Serous Saliva

                  4.    Mucous Saliva

                  5.    Acinus

                  6.    Serous Cells

                  7.    Mucous Cells

                  8.    Serous Demilune

                  9.    Myoepithelial Cells

                  10.  Intercalated Duct

                  11.  Striated Duct

                  12.  Excretory Duct

                  13.  Major Salivary Glands

                  14.  Minor Salivary Glands

                  15.  Von Ebner’s Salivary Glands

                  16.  Xerostomia

                  17.  Lymphatic System

                  18.  Lymph

                  19.  Lymphatic Vessels

                  20.  Lymphoid Tissue

                  21.  Lymph Node

                  22.  Lymphatic Nodule

                  23.  Germinal Center

                  24.  Lymphocyte

                  25.  Plasma Cell

                  26.  Immunoglobulin

                  27.  Hilus

                  28.  Lymphadenopathy

     B.          List the major components of saliva.

     C.          List the major functions of saliva

     D.          Describe the histologic components of a salivary gland: acinus, intercalated duct,

     E.          Compare the location, type of secretion, and ducts (including location of openings) of the

                  parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

     F.          Discuss the functions of lymphoid tissue.

     G.         Describe a lymph node including the afferent vessels, capsule, cortex, medulla, sinuses and efferent vessel(s).

     H.         Compare the location and character of the palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids), and lingual tonsils.

 8.    Develop a plan to reduce caries based on the risk assessment.

     A.          Indentify the key factors to include in a caries risk assessment (CRA).

     B.          Describe high & low risks of the various factors in a CRA.

     C.          Implement Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) according to the patient’s risks.

     D.          Describe to a patient how the various products work to prevent caries.

     E.          Describe to a patient how saliva prevents caries.

     F.          Describe the process of demineralization and remineralization to a patient.

     G.         Describe how to test for salivary flow rate.

     H.         Describe the importance of testing saliva for bacteria

     I.           Describe the importance of utilizing fluorescence for detecting caries.

9.    Assess and Manage oral malodor for clinic patients.

     A.          Identify various etiologies of oral malodor

     B.          Discuss assessments that are utilized to determine etiology of oral malodor niches involved in production of oral malodor.

     C.          Explain relationship between oral malodor and periodontal disease.

     D.          Identify a plan to manage oral malodor

     E.          Describe methods to discuss malodor with a patient.

10. Describe each stage of tooth and root development and tooth eruption.   

     A.          Describe the stage of initiation during tooth development.

     B.          Draw a picture of the initiation stage.

     C.          Identify the time period for the initiation stage.

     D.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Induction

                  2.    Mesenchymal Tissues

                  3.    Ectodermal Tissues

                  4.    Initiation

                  5.    Odontogenesis

                  6.    Mesenchyme

                  7.    Neural Crest Cells

                  8.    Basement Membrane

                  9.    Dental Lamina

     E.          Identify and describe three development problems that may occur during initiation.

     F.          Identify the time frame for the bud stage.

     G.         Draw and label a picture of the bud stage.

     H.         Describe what occurs during the bud stage.

     I.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Lamina

                  2.    Buds or Oval Masses

                  3.    Basement Membrane

                  4.    Tooth Germ

     J.          Identify two abnormalities that may develop during the bud stage.

     K.          Identify why these abnormalities may occur during the bud stage.

     L.          Identify the time frame for development during the cap stage.

     M.         Identify what occurs during the cap stage.

     N.         Draw and label a picture of the cap stage.

     O.         Define the following term:

                  1.    Proliferation

                  2.    Differentiation

                  3.    Cytodifferentiation

                  4.    Histordifferentiation

                  5.    Morphodifferentiation

                  6.    Morphogenesis

                  7.    Enamel Organ

                  8.    Dental Papilla

                  9.    Dental Sac

                  10.  Tooth Germ

     P.          Describe the timeframe that the bell stage occurs.

     Q.         Describe what occurs during the bell stage.

     R.          Draw and label a picture of the bell stage.

     S.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    Proliferation

                  2.    Differentiation

                  3.    Morphogenesis

                  4.    Inner Enamel Epithelium (IEE)

                  5.    Ameloblasts

                  6.    Outer Enamel Epithelium (OEE)

                  7.    Stellate Intermedium

                  8.    Stratum Intermedium

                  9.    Dental Papilla

                  10.  Odontoblasts

                  11.  Dental Pulp

                  12.  Outer Dental Sac

     T.          Describe the apposition stage

     U.         Describe the maturation stage

     V.          Describe root development

                  1.    Cervical Loops

                  2.    HERS

                  3.    Root dentin formation

                  4.    Epithelial rest of Malassez

                  5.    Development of single, bifurcated and trifurcated roots

     W.        Describe tooth eruption

                  1.    Active erruption

                  2.    Passive eruption

                  3.    REE

                  4.    Resorption

                  5.    Nasmyth’s Membrane

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