May 21, 2024  
2018 - 2019 Catalog 
2018 - 2019 Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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DH 116 - Preventive Nutrition

Credits: 3

Provides theory of foods, essential nutrients and their effects on general health as well as oral health. Emphasizes nutrition in dentistry for the dental hygienist in prevention and health promotion.

Prerequisite(s): DH 100 , DH 101  each with a C (2.0) minimum grade and admission to the Dental Hygiene Program.
Corequisite(s): DH 110 , DH 111 , DH 112 , DH 114 , DH 115 , DH 118  
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: None
Pass/NoCredit: No

Outcomes and Objectives 1.     Define and identify the particular nutrients of food and their specific purposes.

     A.          Define the science of nutrition.

     B.          Define nutrient.

     C.          Explain the four functions of food.

     D.          List and briefly describe the six nutrients.

     E.          List in order three nutrients responsible for energy and fuel needs.

     F.           Define Basal Energy Expenditure. What four factors determine B.E.E.

     G.          List factors that increase and decrease B.E.E.

     H.          List the two major health problems, diseases of modern civilization.

     I.            Discuss why we eat food.

2.    Identify simple and complex carbohydrate food sources and indicate the specific functions of carbohydrates plus their role in disease.

     A.          Define carbohydrates and include at least four functions.

     B.          What is the chemical makeup of a carbohydrate?

     C.          Define monosaccharide.

     D.         List and explain the three nutritionally important monosaccharides.

     E.          List and explain the three major sugars called disaccharides.

     F.          Define polysaccharide.

     G.         List and explain the five important polysaccharides.

     H.         Explain the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.

     I.          Briefly describe the metabolism and the utilization of glucose.

     J.          List and explain diseases associated with carbohydrates.

     K.         List a number of factors that decrease blood glucose and a number of factors that increase blood glucose.

     L.          State the daily requirement for carbohydrates and fiber. List good food sources for both.

     M.         How many calories in a gram of carbohydrate?

     N.         Define the following:

                  1.    hydrolysis

                  2.    oligosaccharide

                  3.    lactose intolerance

                  4.    hypoglycemia

                  5.    hyperinsulinism

                  6.    lipogenesis

                  7.    nursing bottle caries

3.    Describe the different types of fats, identify food sources and explain digestion, absorption and storage liquids.   

     A.          Define lipids.

     B.          List and explain the three basic types of fatty acids including a differentiation between saturated and unsaturated.

     C.        Explain essential fatty acids (EFA). Include an example.

     D.        List and explain the six to seven functions of lipids.

     E.        Briefly describe the digestion and absorption plus the metabolism and storage of lipids.

     F.         Define cholesterol.

     G.         Differentiate between LDL & HDL.

     H.         Explain atherosclerosis.

     I.           List methods for reducing the risk of atherosclerosis.

     J.          List suggestions that will reduce both serum cholesterol and blood lipid levels.

     K.          List the acceptable plasma cholesterol level.

     L.          List four diseases associated with lipids.

     M.         Define the following terms:

                  1.    hydrogenation

                  2.    emulsification

                  3.    glycerol

                  4.    lipogenesis

                  5.    lipoprotein

     N.         What is the acceptable daily allowance for fats?

4.    Discuss protein nutrition including specific functions, RDA, good food sources and proteins role in overall and oral health.

     A.          Define Protein.

     B.          What are the major functions of proteins?

     C.          Explain the chemical nature of proteins.

     D.          Define and differentiate between essential and non-essential amino acids.

     E.          List the nine essential amino acids.

     F.          State the difference between a complete protein and an incomplete protein food.

     G.         Explain protein requirements (RDA).

     H.          List good food sources.

     I.           List and explain four protein eating styles.

     J.          Describe the effects of protein deficiencies and excesses on general health as well as oral health.

     K.          What is proteins role in healing?

     L.          Define the following:

                  1.    complementary proteins

                  2.    deamination

                  3.    nitrogen balance

                  4.    pepsin

                  5.    casein

5.    Describe the water soluble vitamins with emphasis on Vitamin C including its role in general as well as oral health and healing.    

     A.          List and define the functions of the vitamins in general.

     B.          List, describe and differentiate between the water soluble and the fat soluble vitamins.

     C.          Describe Vitamin C.

     D.          List three to four functions of Vitamin C.

     E.          Explain the systemic manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency.

     F.           Explain the oral manifestations of Vitamin C deficiencies.

     G.          List the recommended daily requirement for Vitamin C and list a number of good food sources of C.

     H.          List times/reasons for increasing the recommended daily allowance for vitamin C.

     I.           Describe the dangers in taking very large doses of Vitamin C.

     J.           List a few factors that can depress Vitamin C levels.

     K.          Explain/Define Collagen.

     L.          Briefly define each of the following:

                  1.    toxic

                  2.    deficient

                  3.    vita

                  4.    supplementation


6.    Describe all the B Complex Vitamins and their relationships to general as well as oral health and healing.  

     A.          For each of the eight B vitamins list the following:

                  1.    functions

                  2.    R.D.A.

                  3.    dietary sources

                  4.    deficiencies

                  5.    nomenclature

     B.          Categorize the B Complex group by functions and include examples of each.

     C.          Describe the oral manifestations/disorders of B Complex deficiency.

     D.          Define each of the following:

                  1.    anemia

                  2.    glossitis

                  3.    angular cheilosis

                  4.    hematopoiesis/hematopoietic:c

     E.          List the Blood Cell forming nutrients.

  Outcome 7:    Explain the Fat Soluble vitamins including RDA's, food sources, diseases and the relationship to oral and general health.    

     A.          For each of the four fat-soluble vitamins, list and explain each of the following:

                  1.    nomenclature

                  2.    functions

                  3.    R.D.A.

                  4.    food sources

                  5.    deficiencies

                  6.    toxicities (if any)

                  7.    oral manifestations (if any)

     B.          Define the following:

                  1.    Bitot’s Spots

                  2.    Follicular hyperkeratosis

                  3.    Rickets

                  4.    Osteomalacia

                  5.    Osteoporosis

     C.          Hypervitaminosis

     D.          List the minerals involved with vitamin D that are necessary for bone and teeth formation and mineralization. Explain their relationship.

     E.          List and explain the antioxidants.

8.    Explain daily water needs including sources, functions, and the effects of water on general and oral health.

     A.          State the daily requirement for water. How else could we calculate water needs.

     B.          List sources of water.

     C.          List functions of water.

     D.          Define the following terms:

                  1.    homeostatic/water balance

                  2.    dehydration

                  3.    metabolic water

     E.          State the effects of water imbalances on the oral cavity.

     F.           List at least four factors when our need for water would increase.

9.    Describe Mineral Nutrition as it relates to general and oral health.


     A.          Define minerals and include their general functions.

     B.          List the major minerals and the trace minerals. (Know Abbreviations)

     C.          For each mineral discussed in lecture, list the following:

                  1.    R.D.A.

                  2.    Food Sources

                  3.    Functions

                  4.    Toxicity (if any)

                  5.    Diseases (if any)

                  6.    Deficiencies (if any)

                  7.    Oral manifestations (if any)

     D.         Explain absorption, storage, and excretion of calcium and phosphorus. What is the role of

                  magnesium? What is the role of Vitamin D?

     E.          List and describe the minerals that have a role in oral health.

     F.           Define each of the following terms:

                  1.    Mineralization

                  2.    Hypertension

                  3.    Anemia

                  4.    Osteoporosis

10. Explain what an adequate diet is for different age groups and conditions. In addition, the student will be able to make food and serving

      recommendations according to individual needs.

     A.          List and define the basic food groups.

     B.          Describe the “Food Guide Pyramid,” including servings for each group.

     C.          List and explain each of the groups in the Food Guide Pyramid. Also include the servings for each food group.

     D.         List 7 or 8 recommended dietary goals.

     E.          Explain the need for a new focus on dietary guidelines.

     F.          Define each of the following:

                  1.    Diet

                  2.    Balanced Diet

                  3.    Condiments

     G.         Read the food label and set a better table. Explain.

     H.         Indicate dietary needs and nutritional adaptations for each of the following groups:

                  1.    pregnancy and lactation

                  2.    the “growing years”

                  3.    geriatrics

     I.           List the nutrients important to oral health and explain their importance.

     J.          List and explain three examples of eating disorders. Indicate which disorder is the most  common.

     K.          List and describe five to six oral manifestations of Bulimia Nervosa.

     L.           Explain dental hygiene care and intervention of these potentially fatal eating disorders.

11. Explain and demonstrate dietary analysis and nutritional counseling on each other or family or friends. Nutritional counseling will
      emphasize the influences of diet on decay and periodontal disease.

     A.          Define each of the following:

                  1.    Diet Diary or Food Diary

                  2.    Dietary analysis

                  3.    Nutritional counseling

                  4.    Cariogenic

                  5.    Dental Caries Process

     B.          List the types of people that would be good candidates for diet analysis.

     C.          Explain the role of diet and a dietary analysis in the prevention of dental caries.

     D.          Explain the influences of diet on periodontal disease.

     E.          Demonstrate and explain how to obtain a diet diary from a client.

     F.           Explain the importance of reinforcement by follow-up dietary analysis, (food recall). At what point should follow-up dietary analysis be  

     G.         Demonstrate and explain the nutritional counseling of your client.

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