ST 251W - Operating Room Seminar
Discusses patient-monitoring devices and diagnostic tests, abnormalities and correlations with surgical patient conditions, and surgery for traumatic injuries. Includes discussion of students' clinical experiences, the professional role of the Surgical Technologist, general review, and assigned research studies.
Prerequisite(s): ST 207 , ST 210 , ST 220 , ST 230 , and ST 240 , each with a minimum ” C” (2.0) grade, and consent of the Program Coordinator
Corequisite(s): ST 250
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: None
Outcomes and Objectives 1. Demonstrate acceptable communication and language skills, critical thinking skills, interpersonal/collaborative skills, and information
A. Communicate in acceptable English and in medical terminology appropriate to the discipline.
1. Understand and critically evaluate what is read.
2. Write in a clear, organized, succinct, and effective manner.
3. Demonstrate proper spelling, grammar, and sentence structure in formal writing.
4. Use medical terminology accurately and appropriately.
5. Speak effectively when participating in class discussion and when expressing a reasoned point of view.
B. Analyze data and discipline-based knowledge to formulate logical conclusions.
1. Integrate and correlate concepts from different courses.
2. Exhibit development of both inductive and deductive reasoning skills.
3. Demonstrate problem-solving skills in both hypothetical and clinical situations.
4. Recognize patterns and trends in data and be able to justify any conclusions drawn.
5. Make predictions based on evidence.
6. Differentiate coincidental and causal relationships.
7. Take a position on an issue and provide evidence or adequate rationale to support that position.
C. Work constructively within a group.
1. Demonstrate respect and consideration for others.
2. Listen to, respect, and critically evaluate the ideas and opinions of others.
3. Respond appropriately to other’s communications.
4. Value differences and diversity within a group.
5. Contribute to the product(s) of a study or work group and accept responsibility for one’s own level of participation.
6. Function within the guidelines established by the group.
7. Identify and analyze one’s own values and responses.
8. Respect the perspectives, values, and choices of others.
D. Demonstrate the ability to access, analyze, and use information appropriate to the discipline.
1. Identify and access appropriate print and media resources to expand his/her understanding of subject matter.
2. Access web sites using URL’s and hyperlinks.
3. Conduct an Internet search pertinent to course subject matter.
4. Evaluate the quality of information gathered from print and electronic sources with reference to reliability of the source, currency, and
5. Paraphrase, synthesize, and summarize information gathered from multiple sources.
6. Demonstrate word processing skills for the preparation of written assignments.
7. Use appropriate style to cite and document sources.
2. Locate and interpret information contained in a patient’s chart.
A. Describe the organization of a patient’s chart.
B. Given examples, translate commonly used charting abbreviations and symbols.
C. Correctly use charting abbreviations and symbols.
3. Be aware of common monitoring and diagnostic methods, recognize deviations from normal results and, when appropriate, participate
in interventional activities.
A. Describe and demonstrate the proper methods for measuring Vital Signs, and discuss the importance in patient monitoring.
B. Differentiate a “sign” vs. a “symptom” and give examples of each.
C. Identify the normal adult respiratory rate and factors that may affect the quality, rate and rhythm of respirations.
D. Define Cheyne-Stokes and Kussmaul breathing patterns and explain their significance.
E. Identify the normal adult pulse rate and factors that may affect the rate, strength and rhythm of the pulse.
F. List and locate the pulse (and pressure) points on the human body.
G. Identify the normal adult blood pressure and factors that may affect it, and explain indirect and direct methods of blood pressure
H. Explain the significance of systolic and diastolic pressures in hemodynamic physiology.
I. Define Central Venous Pressure and identify factors that may affect it.
J. Explain the methods, importance and uses of CVP determination.
K. Discuss normal rates of urine output and the significance of its measurement during surgery.
L. Identify various methods of measuring body temperature, the normal values for each method, and possible causes for above-normal and
subnormal temperature readings.
M. Discuss methods of regulating body temperature during surgery.
N. Differentiate what happens to blood pressure, pulse, respirations, body temperature, urine output, skin color and skin texture in cases of
infection, hemorrhage, shock, anaphylaxis,hypoxia and hemolytic transfusion reaction.
O. Discuss the use of a pulse oximeter, end-tidal CO2 monitor, and peripheral nerve stimulator during surgery.
P. Define shock in physiologic terms, and discuss the mechanisms responsible for the signs and symptoms of shock.
Q. List eight categories of shock and give examples of causes for each.
R. State the normal blood volume of an adult, and list the signs and symptoms that are related to progressive blood loss (hypovolemia).
S. List the components of the general treatment measures for shock.
T. List the categories of pharmacologic agents used in the definitive treatment of shock, in their proper order of use, and give examples of
specific agents used.
U. List possible causes of respiratory and cardiac arrest.
V. Discuss the effects of serum potassium levels on the myocardium.
W. List the reversible causes of cardiac arrest using the “5H’s and 5 T’s”.
X. Describe the treatment of cardiac arrest, including proper methods of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, indications for open cardiac
massage, appropriate emergency drugs, and the use of defibrillation.
Y. Identify how the onset of severe shock or sudden cardiac arrest during surgery may be recognized by the Scrub Person.
Z. Discuss the appropriate roles of the various members of the surgical team during cardiac resuscitation, and explain the importance of
record-keeping during “Code” procedures.
AA. Explain how an electrocardiogram reading is derived and identify the proper placement of EKG lead electrodes on a patient in the O.R.
BB. Using a typical (Lead II) EKG tracing, define what cardiac events are indicated by the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave.
CC. Discuss how an individual EKG configuration can indicate abnormal conditions of the heart.
DD. Define Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR).
EE. Differentiate an escape beat/rhythm from a premature beat.
FF. Define and discuss the causes, typical EKG pattern, and treatment of various cardiac dysrhythmias.
GG. Identify the kinds of cardiac dysrhythmias that may require a permanent pacemaker.
HH. Differentiate the appearance of dysrhythmias from that of a pacemaker malfunction or 60-cycle interference.
II. Describe the electrophysiologic classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs.
JJ. Differentiate cardioversion from defibrillation, and explain the physiologic action and purpose of a defibrillating shock.
KK. Discuss the uses of a Holter monitor and an Implantable Cardiovertor Defibrillator.
LL. List the departments of the Clinical Pathology section of a hospital.
MM. List the components of a Complete Blood Count, their normal values, and examples of causes of abnormal findings.
NN. Explain which lab tests are referred to as “cardiac markers”.
OO. List various types of blood chemistry tests and examples of causes of abnormal findings.
PP. List other common blood tests and their significance to diagnosis.
QQ. List the components of a Urinalysis, their normal values, and examples of causes of abnormal findings.
RR. Give examples of special biochemical, toxicologic, serologic, histologic, and cytologic diagnostic tests.
SS. List the components of an Arterial Blood Gases study, their normal values, and examples of causes of abnormal findings.
TT. Analyze the meaning of given examples of ABG results.
UU. Describe the proper method for collecting and transporting a blood specimen for ABG analysis.
4. Demonstrate familiarity with common types of traumatic injuries and their treatments.
A. Discuss the extent and impact of traumatic injury in American society.
B. Define “the Golden Hour”.
C. Describe the ACS rating of Trauma Centers and the types of services involved.
D. Define “triage” as it applies to multiple patients and to multiple injuries on the same patient.
E. Discuss the proper handling of the clothing and any legal evidence from a trauma patient.
F. In the treatment of trauma victims, differentiate the preliminary evaluation and resuscitation from the definitive evaluation.
G. List examples of injuries that are immediately life-threatening.
H. Define the Glasgow Coma Scale and discuss methods for assessing levels of consciousness.
I. List possible causes of unconsciousness.
J. List grades of blood loss status and the indicative signs and symptoms of each; relate this to volume replacement therapy.
K. Discuss the causes and treatments of various kinds of chest injuries, abdominal injuries, and orthopedic injuries.
L. Discuss special considerations with injuries to children and to pregnant patients.
1. Epidural hemorrhage or hematoma
2. Subdural hematomas (acute, subacute, and chronic)
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
M. Explain special O.R. rules for dealing with trauma patients.
N. Describe a complete neurologic examination.
O. Discuss the types of direct/primary head injuries and the methods of diagnosis and treatment
P. Discuss the types of secondary head injuries and the methods of diagnosis and treatment for
Q. Define terminology related to head injuries, explain the clinical correlates of increasing intracranial pressure, and discuss the monitoring of
head injury patients.
R. Discuss types of vertebral and spinal cord injuries and their methods of diagnosis and treatment.
S. Discuss emerging new therapies for spinal cord injuries.
5. Demonstrate understanding of the terms related to physics.
A. Define terms related to mechanics:
1. Study of Motion
2. Projectile and satellite motion
3. Newton’s Law of Motion
4. Newton’s Law of Gravity
6. Energy and work
B. Define terms related to properties of matter:
1. Atomic nature of matter
4. Gases and plasmas
C. Define terms related to heat:
1. Temperature, heat and expansion
2. Heat transfer
3. Change of state
D. Define terms related to sound, vibrations and waves:
1. Simple harmonic motion
2. Vibrating Strings
E. Define terms related to light:
1. Reflection and refraction
3. Light waves
4. Light emission
F. Define terms related to modern physics:
1. Atomic and nuclear physics
G. Apply the principles of physics to safe patient care practices in the O.R.
6. Deal positively with the emotional reactions engendered by the surgical setting in patients, co-workers and him/herself.
A. Participate in a weekly discussion of events and feelings experienced during the hospital Clinical Externship.
B. Keep a daily journal of experiences in the hospitals, to be turned in weekly.
C. Exhibit sensitivity and appropriate responses to emotional stresses in others.
D. Recognize and initiate efforts to resolve problems in interpersonal relationships in the clinical setting.
E. Act as a resource to classmates and others having interpersonal difficulties.
7. Prepare a researched Patient Case Study, selected from any procedure on which s/he participated.
A. Find and cite the appropriate information on the patient’s hospital chart.
B. Effectively use a medical library for research.
C. Identify other appropriate resources, including persons.
D. Present a written discussion of the disease process or abnormality (anatomy, physiology and pathology), pre-operative diagnostic tests
and pharmacologic therapy, pre-operative preparation, the surgical procedure performed, any life-style changes that may result, and the
E. Write in a clear, organized and effective manner, using proper terminology, spelling, and grammar and sentence structure.
F. Utilize appropriate citations to resource literature, including a proper form of bibliography.
8. Pass a comprehensive examination covering all the subject matter presented throughout the entire program.
A. Demonstrate understanding of various theories and perspectives embodied in the discipline and its basic science foundations.
B. Demonstrate understanding of aseptic and safety practices in the perioperative setting.
C. Demonstrate entry-level knowledge of surgical procedures and techniques.
D. Demonstrate entry-level knowledge of instruments, supplies and equipment used in surgery.
E. Demonstrate entry-level knowledge of surgical anatomy, pharmacology and microbiology
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