Jan 30, 2023  

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BIO 271 - Genetics

Credits: 3

Provides a survey of the field of genetics with an emphasis on health applications where appropriate. Applies principles of molecular genetics, karyotypes, Mendelian genetics, linkage genetics and biotechnology to understand genetic diversity in humans and other organisms.

Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 3, WRITING LEVEL 3, CHM 111 , BIO 171  and either MTH 208W  or MTH 209W  all with a minimum grade of C (2.0).
Corequisite(s): None
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science
Pass/NoCredit: Yes

Outcomes and Objectives 1.     Describe advances societies' increased control over genetic characteristics of species due to advances in the field of genetics.

     A.          Describe how transmission genetics allows society to select for specific traits in agricultural products.

     B.          Describe how advances in molecular biology has led to the development of recombinant DNA technology and analysis.

     C.          Describe how biotechnology has allowed for a more rapid manipulation and control over the genetic traits of organisms.

     D.         Describe how population biology explains the persistence of genetic disease, trends in evolution and how these phenomena interface with
                  society’s ability to control the genetic characteristics of organisms.

2.    Apply knowledge of nucleic acids to the storage of genetic information and protein synthesis.

     A.          Critically evaluate early studies that led to the characterization of nucleic acid structure, function and replication.

     B.          Compare and contrast the structures and functions of DNA and various types of RNA.

     C.          Compare and contrast transcription, translation and DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

     D.         Use the DNA to predict the primary structure of proteins and how mutations will affect this structure.

     E.          Describe the processes of cellular DNA repair.

     F.           Describe cellular strategies used to regulate the processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation to control gene expression in
                   both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

     G.          Describe the biochemical connection between genotype and phenotype.

3.    Apply replication-cycles of viruses and related genetic elements to understand how they serve as genetic vectors.    

     A.          Describe viral life-cycles and strategies for replication of viral genetic information.

     B.          Describe how genetic engineering vectors are derived from viruses.

     C.          Describe how genetic vectors can be used to create mutations and maps.

     D.         Describe the behavior of transposable elements in bacteria and eukaryotic cells.

     E.          Describe how viruses and related genetic elements serve as genetic vectors.

4.    Apply knowledge of chromosome structure to the transmission of genetic information and occurrence of genetic anomalies.

     A.          Describe the enzymatic basis of genetic recombination in eukaryotic cells.

     B.          Describe the level of DNA packaging in chromosomes and how this relates to gene expression.

     C.          Describe the chromosomal structures and their functions.

     D.          Describe a variety of chromosomal rearrangements, detection methods and predictions regarding chromosomal stability in light of cellular

5.    Apply knowledge of ploidy and karyotype to describe a cell’s compliment of genetic information.    

     A.          Accurately use the terms haploid, diploid, triploid, polyploid, aneuploidy and trisomic.

     B.          Accurately use the terms sex chromosome and autosome.

     C.          Accurately use the terms homologous chromosome, sister chromosomes and chromatid.

6.    Apply principles of mitosis or meiosis to predict the transmission of genetic information to daughter cells.

     A.          Accurately describe mitosis and meiosis by using stage names and correlating key events for each stage.

     B.          Describe chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis.

     C.          Calculate copy number (C) and ploidy number (N) for various stages of the cell cycle.

     D.          Describe sources of genetic diversity in meiosis.

7.    Analyze outcomes of genetic crosses using Mendelian genetics.

     A.          Apply principles of probability.

     B.          Apply goodness-of-fit tests to test hypothesis.

     C.          Apply a variety of interactions between alleles and genes to explain outcomes of genetic crosses.

     D.          Develop and analyze pedigrees using appropriate notation methods.

8. Predict and analyze outcomes of genetic crosses using linkage analysis.

     A.          Analyze inheritance of sex-linked traits.

     B.          Use 3-point test crosses to create recombination maps of chromosomes and define linkage groups.

     C.          Map the locations of centromeres.

9.    Explain gene regulation strategies used in embryonic development, determination, and differentiation.

     A.          Distinguish between determination and differentiation and how these concepts relate to stem cells.

     B.          Describe early decisions and mechanisms that lead to the development of body plan.

10. Describe behavior genetics.

     A.          Explore the genetics of autism, addiction, mood disorders, intelligence, sleep and schizophrenia.

     B.          Describe the types of questions addressed by this field.

     C.          Describe the history of behavior genetics.

11. Apply population genetics theories to explain observations.   

     A.          Calculate allele frequencies and genotypic frequencies based on the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

     B.          Identify which conditions affect the genetic equilibrium of a population – such as natural selection, genetic drift, migration, nonrandom
                   mating and mutations.

12. Demonstrate an understanding of techniques used in the field of biotechnology.

     A.          Explain how biotechnology affects humans.

     B.          Explain the theory and application of recombinant DNA techniques.

     C.          Explain the theory and application of electrophoresis.

     D.          Explain the theory and application of hybridization techniques.

     E.          Explain the theory and application of screening molecular libraries.

     F.          Explain strategies used to characterize and analyze genomes.

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