WET 240 - Applied Hydraulics
Studies applied hydraulic principles utilized in water distribution and wastewater collection systems. Includes pumpage, headloss, piping, valving, metering, cross connection control, storage, corrosion, and an introduction to hydraulic modeling. Discusses the principles of force, pressure, hydraulic grade line, and pump curves. Includes tours of municipal/industrial water pump stations and storage reservoirs and related field discussions. Credit may be earned in WWT 240 or WET 240, but not in both.
Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 6 or permission of instructor.
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: None
Outcomes and Objectives 1. Describe basic hydraulic principles.
A. Define such terminology as: density, specific gravity, pressure, force, piezometric surface, hydraulic grade line, and energy grade line.
B. Define terms such as: pressure head, elevation head, and velocity head.
C. Calculate friction head loss in piping systems, utilizing both the Hazen Williams formula, as well as the Daracy-Weisbach formula.
D. Explain the significance of minor losses as they relate to piping systems.
E. Define Bernoulli's Theorem as that of the total energy possessed by a fluid being the sum of its pressure, kinetic and potential energies.
F. Describe the graphical representation relating fraction factor, Reynbolds number, and relative roughness as the Moody Diagram.
2. Solve various pumping problems.
A. Describe factors affecting suction and discharge of a pumping system, including head and lift.
B. Define the components of total dynamic head.
C. Perform horsepower and efficiency calculations including: motor efficiencies, pumping efficiencies, and wire-to-water efficiencies.
D. Perform pumping cost calculations.
E. Interpret standard pump curves including, the relationships of flow, total head, break horsepower, and efficiency.
F. Perform calculations associated with the Affinity Laws.
G. Perform calculations regarding the Rule of Continuity.
H. Compare parallel piping arrangements with series pumping arrangements.
I. Describe the differences between radial-flow, axial-flow, and mixed-flow pumps.
3. Describe various flow metering devices and their typical applications.
A. Explain flow measuring devices such as: Weirs, Parshall Flumes, venturis, orifice meters, piston meters, nutating disc meters, turbine
meters, compound meters, and current meters.
4. Explain differences in piping materials and their appropriate applications.
A. Define four (4) general types of piping systems used by water utilities including: transmission lines, in-plant piping, distribution mains, and
B. List advantages and disadvantages of various pipe materials including: grey cast iron, ductile iron, steel, asbestos-cement, PVC, and
pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe.
C. Describe various pipe joints including: flange joints, mechanical joints, ball-and-socket joints, push-on joints, restrained joints, and grooved-
5. Define the numerous applications for valving in typical water distribution systems.
A. Describe the principle used for valving including: to start and stop flow, to regulate pressure and throttle flow, to prevent backflow, and
to relieve pressure.
B. Describe the classifications of water utility valves including: gate valves, globe valves, needle valves, pressure relief valves, air-and-
vacuum relief valves, diaphragm valves, pinch valves, rotary valves, butterfly valves, and check valves.
C. Describe the principle methods of operating water system valves including: manually, electrically, hydraulically, and pneumatically.
6. Describe a Cross-connection and the various means of protection.
A. Describe the means of backflow including back pressure and back siphonage.
B. Describe the preventative measures, depending on the degree of hazard involved, including: air gaps, reduced pressure zone backflow
preventers, double-check valve assemblies, atmospheric and pressure vacuum breakers, and abarometric loops.
7. Describe various functions and purposes of water storage.
A. Define the primary types of water storage including: hydro-pneumatic tanks, ground-level reservoirs, and elevated tanks
B. Explain the daily variation of system demands known as the Diurnal Cycle.
C. Explain the need for various reservoir system components including: overflow piping, altitude valves, air vents, access hatches, cathodic
protection systems, paint coatings, and rechlorination systems.
8. Describe how both internal and external corrosion impact piping systems.
A. Describe the various external coating protection mechanism such as: concrete, coal tar, and poly-wrap.
B. Describe various means of internal pipe protection including: cement, calcium carbonate precipitate, and polyphosphate film formation.
C. Summarize the Lead and Copper Rule including: action levels, health risks, sampling requirements, and notification requirements.
9. Explain the basics of computerized hydraulic modeling.
A. Calculate basic water system flows by means of the Hardy-cross Method.
B. Describe field calibration of a computerized hydraulic model by comparing hydrant flow tests to model results.
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