May 16, 2022
GLG 102 - Volcanoes and EarthquakesCredits: 1
A study of the internal dynamics of the earth. Major topics will include: catastrophic events in historic times, products of vulcanism, volcanic rocks, vulcanism and geothermal energy, relationship to earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics, interpretation of earthquake records, man-made earthquakes, earthquake prediction and control.
Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 2
Lecture Hours: 15 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science
Outcomes and Objectives
- Demonstrate an understanding of how the theory of plate tectonics explains major features of the geology of Earth.
- Identify the original lines of evidence that led to the concept of continental drift.
- Describe the discoveries that led to the model of seafloor spreading.
- Explain how earthquakes and volcanic activity under the sea support the seafloor spreading model.
- Describe the geological and geophysical characteristics of convergent plate boundaries.
- Distinguish between subduction and continent-continent plate boundaries.
- Describe the geological and geophysical characteristics of transform plate boundaries.
- Explain how evidence from all three types of plate boundaries can be synthesized into the modern theory of plate tectonics.
- Explain how continental drift is now seen as part of plate tectonics.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how earthquakes occur and how they provide evidence for the structure of Earth.
- Identify the different causes of earthquakes.
- Recognize that most earthquakes are related to plate tectonics.
- Explain how elastic rebound theory explains the actual mechanism of most earthquakes.
- Describe how the different types of earthquake waves travel and what are their characteristics.
- Explain how seismographs operate.
- Distinguish between the Mercalli Intensity Scale of earthquake damage and the Richter Magnitude Scale.
- Describe how the different types of earthquake waves travel through Earth.
- Explain how earthquake waves provide evidence for the structure of the interior of Earth.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how earthquakes cause damage and what has happened in some of the great earthquake disasters of human history.
- Identify which type of earthquake wave causes the most damage.
- Describe the types of direct earthquake damage.
- Discuss what happened in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, both at the epicenter and in San Francisco.
- Describe how tsunamis are generated by great earthquakes.
- Discuss what happened in the 1964 Alaskan earthquake.
- Describe other indirect types of earthquake damage.
- Discuss what happened during and after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
- Discuss the significance of the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California.
- Describe the major earthquake risks along the San Andreas Fault in California today.
- Describe other earthquake risks in California today.
- Explain why Oregon and Washington have until recently been considered to be at low risk from great earthquakes.
- Describe recent discoveries that have led to the realization that Oregon and Washington are at risk from great earthquakes.
- Explain why the 1995 Kobe earthquake had the greatest amount of damage of all earthquakes in history.
- Describe the evidence that the 1811-1812 earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri were the greatest earthquakes of U.S. history.
- Discuss earthquake risk in the Memphis-St. Louis area in light of the New Madrid earthquakes.
- Explain why scientists have such difficulty in explaining the New Madrid earthquakes.
- Discuss other examples of earthquake disasters.
- Describe the attempts at earthquake prediction.
- Explain why attempts at earthquake prediction have not been successful.
- Describe measures to minimize earthquake damage.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how volcanoes form and what are the different types of eruptions.
- Describe how magma is generated within Earth.
- Explain the difference between plutonic and volcanic igneous rocks.
- Explain how different textures of igneous rocks are produced.
- Describe the range of composition of igneous rocks.
- Distinguish between fissure eruptions, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and composite volcanoes.
- Explain why some types of volcanic eruptions are more explosive than others.
- Identify some of the risks associated with volcanic eruptions.
- Identify some of the beneficial aspects of volcanic eruptions.
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