Dec 09, 2022  

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CHM 221 - Organic Biochemistry

Credits: 3
Addresses the major human metabolic pathways from an enzymatic perspective. Relies heavily on the major classes of organic compounds and the interrelationships of biologically active compounds. Designed for students interested in careers in health related fields, biochemistry, medicine or pharmacy.

Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 2, WRITING LEVEL 2, MATH LEVEL 5 and BIO 171  or CHM 210 
Corequisite(s): None
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science
Pass/NoCredit: Yes

Outcomes and Objectives
  1. Communicate effectively
    1. Demonstrate understanding by reading, speaking, and writing.
    2. Employ critical writing and active listening to obtain or convey information.
    3. Collect and analyze data.
    4. Identify trends, solve problems, and conclude logically by integrating concepts.
  2. Apply chemical principles to biochemical systems
    1. Explain the basic principles of ionic and covalent bonding.
    2. Describe the importance of pH and its relationship to the reactivity and stability of molecules.
    3. Explain the significance of hydrogen bonding to biochemical molecules.
    4. Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics, coupling of reactions, catabolic, anabolic, exergonic and endergonic reactions.
  3. Apply organic chemistry principles to biochemical systems
    1. Draw and name functional groups and use their chemical properties to predict the reactivity and physical characteristics of molecules.
    2. Recognize how functional groups in biochemically relevant macromolecules are inter-converted.
    3. Explain the molecular structures of functional groups in terms of enantiomers, chiral and achiral centers, stereoisomers, isomers and conformers.
  4. Apply principles of enzyme kinetics to biochemical systems
    1. Explain how enzymes are specific and selective catalysts with reference to the chemical properties of amino acids and prosthetic groups.
    2. Define activation energy and describe how it is related to reaction rates, free energy and bonding energy.
    3. Describe the Michaelis-Menton and allosteric model for enzyme kinetics to calculate Km and Vmax.
    4. Recognize the importance of pH, temperature, salt concentration, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and inhibitors in regulating enzymatic activity.
    5. Explain the differences between competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors and how these can be identified using enzyme kinetics and Lineweaver-Burke plots.
    6. Describe the simple classification of enzymes by their function.
  5. Describe cellular process in a biochemical system
    1. Carbohydrate metabolism:
      1. Describe the major points of regulation and interconnections between glycolysis, the pentose pathway, anaerobic degradation and the Krebs cycle.
      2. Identify and explain the importance of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 in glycolysis, the Kreb cycle, the pentose pathway and the electron transport chain.
      3. Explain the physiological relevance of these pathways and strategies for driving endothermic reactions.
      4. Explain the significance of the pentose pathway and anaerobic respiration and their regulation points.
    2. Fat metabolism:
      1. Explain the major molecules involved in fatty acid metabolism and ?-oxidation.
      2. Describe the methods of regulation, the interconnections of these metabolic pathways and recycling of the metabolites.
      3. Compare the overall energy efficiency of the aerobic respiration, anaerobic degradation of glucose and lipid metabolism.
    3. Nitrogen metabolism:
      1. Explain the major molecules involved in deamination and the carbon chain breakdown from the available amino acid pool.
      2. Describe the methods of regulation and interconnections of protein metabolism.
      3. Describe the methods of regulation and interconnections of nucleic acid metabolism.
    4. Cell signaling / communication:
      1. Identify the major molecules and the reactions involved in cell signaling.
      2. Describe how cell signaling regulates the various metabolic processes within a cell.

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