Dec 07, 2022  

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BIO 199 - Human Heredity And Sexuality

Credits: 4

Introduces the fundamental concepts underlying biology with a focus on heredity and sexuality. Includes cell biology, inborn errors of metabolism, reproduction and development, immunology and HIV/AIDS, oncogenes and cancer, plus classical, population and molecular genetics. Explores the frontiers of health and medicine including reproductive technologies, biotechnology, gene therapy, prenatal diagnosis, genetic screening and the bioethics of the Human Genome Project. Includes case study analysis and laboratory investigations related to cellular and population genetics and biotechnology. Credit may be earned in BIO 199 or BIO 199H  but not in both.

Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 2, WRITING LEVEL 2, MATH LEVEL 2 and High School biology and chemistry
Corequisite(s): None
Lecture Hours: 60 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science
Pass/NoCredit: No

Outcomes and Objectives 1.    Participate in the process of science.

    A.        Make observations.

    B.        Conduct experiments.

    C.        Formulate and test hypotheses.

    D.        Collect data.

    E.        Analyze data.

    F.        Draw conclusions.

    G.        Report results.

    H.        Access information resources.

2.   Demonstrate the competent use of common instruments and technology used in scientific investigation.

    A.        Make observations.

    B.        Conduct experiments.

    C.        Formulate and test hypotheses.

    D.        Collect data.

    E.        Analyze data.

    F.        Draw conclusions.

    G.        Report results.

    H.        Access information resources.

3:.   Demonstrate the competent use of common instruments and technology used in scientific investigation.

    A.        Use a microscope to view small objects.

    B.        Use common laboratory instruments for accurate measurement.

    C.        Correctly use various kinds of scientific equipment.

    D.        Use gel electrophoresis to separate molecules.

4.    Communicate in the language of the discipline.

    A.        Read critically.

    B.        Write effectively.

    C.        Listen actively.

    D.        Speak effectively.

    E.        Organize a presentation appropriate for the audience.

5.    Engage in the critical thinking of the discipline.

    A.        Integrate concepts.

    B.        Solve problems.

    C.        Draw logical conclusions.

    D.        Make predictions based on evidence.

    E.        Identify trends and patterns.

    F.        Distinguish between simple correlation and cause-and-effect.

    G.        Identify pros and cons in the analysis of bioethical issues.

6.    Associate and cooperate with peers to share ideas and points of view.

    A.        Work in small groups.

    B.        Accept responsibility for his/her share of the work..

    C.        Exchange data, predictions, opinions and ideas.

    D.        Meet deadlines determined by the group.

    E.        Demonstrate respect for diverse values and viewpoints.

7.    Become aware of the availability of various information resources for current and continued learning purposes.

    A.        Use the library to access information using a variety of computer data bases and/or indexes.

    B.        Use computers for access to the Internet and to self-directed tutorials and simulations.

    C.        Use reference manuals specific to the discipline.

    D.        Use other individuals such as fellow students, instructors and professionals as a source of information.

8.    Discuss the basic concepts of heredity.

    A.        Define and properly use the language of heredity including: allele, gene, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier, chromosome, DNA, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype, autosomal, and sex-linked.

    B.        Distinguish between transmission, population and molecular genetics.

Outcome 9:    Discuss inborn errors of metabolism.

    A.        List and describe the function of the macromolecules upon which life is based, including: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins and minerals.

    B.        Describe in general how inborn errors of metabolism disrupt the synthesis or breakdown of these macromolecules.

    C.        Discuss PKU as a model to illustrate major genetic concepts and how inborn errors of metabolism result when metabolic pathways are blocked.

10.  Discuss basic cell structure and function and how cells communicate.

    A.        Describe the general organization of a typical human cell especially organelles important to heredity.

    B.        Discuss the process of differentiation or cell specialization.

    C.        List in proper order the molecules and structures important in cell communication including growth factors, hormones, surface receptors, other membrane proteins, secondary messengers and DNA binding proteins.

11.  Discuss the stages, events and significance of somatic cell division or mitosis.

    A.        Explain the significance of mitosis.

    B.        Tell when, why and where mitosis occurs.

    C.        List and describe the main purpose of each part of the cell cycle.

    D.        List, recognize and explain the events that occur in each step of mitosis.

    E.        Discuss several factors involved in controlling the cell cycle.

    F.        Explain the consequences of loss of control of the cell cycle.

12.  Discuss the stages, events and significance of reproductive cell division or meiosis.

    A.        Define and properly use the following: diploid, haploid, homologous chromosomes,gametogenesis, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis.

    B.        Diagram and label in sequence the process of meiosis including when major events such as synapsis, crossing over, independent assortment, segregation and reduction division occur.

    C.        Distinguish between the different stages of mitosis and meiosis when given a diagram or description and the chromosome number at interphase.

13.  Apply the concept of meiosis to sexual reproduction in humans.

    A.        Distinguish between the chromosome number of a somatic cell, a primordial germ cell and a reproductive cell at various stages of meiosis in humans.

    B.        Discuss the genetic factors that increase genetic variation among offspring.

    C.        List and describe the differences between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

    D.        Define: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, and teratogens.

    E.        Briefly describe the normal course of prenatal development, from fertilization to the birth of a healthy baby.

    F.        Discuss the genetic factors that affect maturation and aging.

14.  Discuss infertility and reproductive technologies.

    A.        Define and properly use the following terms:

    B.        Discuss the causes of infertility in men and women and several tests that doctors perform to

                determine why a couple may be unable to conceive.

    C.        Describe several reproductive technologies that are available to help infertile couples have healthy babies including: IVF, GIFT and ZIFT.

    D.        Discuss several prenatal screening tests and their limitations.

    E.        Discuss newborn screening and the factors that determine which genetic conditions should be screened.

    F.        Examine several different case studies and the ethical issues involved in each.

    G.        Use a bioethical decision making model to

15.  Discuss the study of cytogenetics and chromosomal abnormalities.

    A.        Define and properly use the following terms: aneuploid, trisomy, monosomy, triploid, tetraploid, nondisjunction, deletion, translocation, mosiac, syndrome, amniocentesis, karyotype, ultrasound, and CVS.

    B.        Describe the structure and organization of human chromosomes, and discuss how they are classified in cytogenetic studies.

    C.        Prepare a human karyotype from the photograph provided and determine the phenotype and chromosomal constitution of the individual.

    D.        Discuss the information that geneticists obtain from chromosome students and how this information is used to identify or diagnose genetic disorders.

    E.        Explain how nondisjunction can result in aneuploidy.

    F.        List some of outcomes associated with chromosomal abnormalities in humans.

    G.        List several chromosomal disorders and describe the chromosomal abnormality that is associated with each.

    H.        Relate the concept of dosage compensation and the presence or absence of Barr bodies to the Lyon hypothesis.

    I.         Explain why sex chromosomal anomalies are not usually as severe as autosomal anomalies.

16.  Use the principles of genetics to solve human genetic problems and make predictions.

    A.        Define and properly use the terms: dominant, recessive, monohybrid, dihybrid, genotype, phenotype, allele, locus, mutation, genetic heterogeneity, phenocopies, incomplete penetrance, pleiotropy, expressivity, proband and consanguinity.

    B.        Use the principles of heredity in predicting outcomes of genetic crosses involving: one or two genes.

    C.        Apply the product rule to calculate the probability of independent events occurring together in human genetic situations.

    D.        Describe modifications of Mendelian principles to explain incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, epistasis, linkage, and imprinting.

    E.        Analyze human pedigrees and determine whether the pattern of inheritance exhibited in the pedigree is compatible with one or more of the following: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive, and/or sex-influenced.

    F.        Select a Mendelian trait or other appropriate trait known to occur in their family and collect data from as many family members as possible. Do the same for as many multifactorial traits as possible. Report findings by constructing a family pedigree and identifying each   person's genotype or phenotype.

    G.        Solve human genetic problems involving sex chromosomes and describe modifications to Mendelian principles to explain sex-limited, sex-influenced and sex-linked problems.

    H.        Discuss sex determination and outline the complex process that leads to male or female sex differentiation.

    I.         Describe the role of the genetic counselor and explain the importance of diagnostic testing and family history in the counseling process.

17.  Discuss the inheritance of complex genetic traits and explain how polygenic traits are typically multifactorial.

    A.        Define and properly use the following terms: polygenes, continuous variation, nature/nurture,

               monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, fraternal twins, correlations coefficient and heritability.

    B.        Cite examples of several human traits that are controlled by polygenes.

    C.        List the basic tenets of polygenic inheritance.

    D.        Develop and/or apply a three gene model or a four gene model to explain the inheritance of a

               polygenic trait such as intelligence, stature, or skin color.

    E.        List some of the general characteristics that make polygenic traits difficult to study.

    F.        Describe examples of techniques that geneticists use in order to gain insight into the relative

    G.        Discuss the limitations of polygenic models based on probability in the “nature vs. nurture” debate.

18: Discuss the structure and function of nucleic acids and the role of the “central dogma” in molecular genetic

    A.        Recognize and properly label the chemical components of a DNA molecule.

    B.        Identify the contributions of: Griffiths, Avery et al., Hershey and Chase, Chargaff, Wilkins and Franklin and Watson and Crick to the discovery of DNA as the basis of molecular genetics.

    C.        List five differences between DNA and RNA.

    D.        Discuss the role of the following in DNA replication: helicase, DNA polymerase, complimentary base pairing, semi-conservative replication.

    E.        Diagram the Central Dogma and describe the process of DNA replication, transcription and translation.

    F.        Given a DNA coding strand and a table of codons/amino acids, determine the complimentary mRNA codons, tRNA anticodons, and the amino acid sequence that would be translated into a polypeptide.

    G.        Identify factors in the environment which can act as mutagens and/or carcinogens.

    H.        Differentiate between deletion, frameshift and point mutations.

    I.         Explain how sickle-cell anemia is the result of an error in the DNA code for hemoglobin.

19.  Discuss several fundamental techniques used in genetic engineering or biotechnology.

    A.        Define and properly use the following terms: gene cloning, plasmid, antibiotic resistance gene, gel electrophoresis, PCR, recombinant DNA, transgenic animals, selectable marker, restriction enzymes, and DNA ligase.

    B.        Define biotechnology and list some examples of how biotechnology can be used to improve human health and agriculture.

    C.        Explain or diagram how recombinant DNA molecules are constructed and the basic steps of gene cloning.

    D.        Explain how scientists select for tranformed colonies.

    E.        Discuss the use of DNA fingerprinting in paternity and forensics.

    F.        Explain the theory of genetic diagnosis based on RFLP’s.

    G.        Discuss the fears, limitations and precautions involved in the release of genetically engineered microbes into the environment.

    H.        Identify the role of HUGO in molecular genetics today.

    I.         Discuss the implication of gene therapy in society from both practical and ethical viewpoints.

20,  Discuss the genetics of cancer on a cellular and a molecular level.

    A.        Explain how genetics can influence the development of cancer.

    B.        List several characteristics of cancer cells.

    C.        Discuss the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer development.

    D.        Describe cancer as a breakdown in signal transduction and cellular communication.

    E.        Explain the multiple hit hypothesis of cell transformation and metastasis.

    F.        Discuss the relationship between diet and cancer.

    G.        List several types of cancer therapies and the limitations of each.

21.  Discuss the role of HIV in the development of AIDS and the biological and societal implications of this significant human plague

    A.        List four modes of HIV transmission.

    B.        Discuss current theories of the origin or AIDS and early years of transmission in the U.S.

    C.        Distinguish between HIV and AIDS.

    D.        List several signs and symptoms associated with HIV/AIDS.

    E.        Label important components of the HIV virus and explain the basic life cycle of the virus.

    F.        Discuss the effect of HIV on the immune system and target cells.

    G.        Describe some of the bioethical implications of discrimination and labeling based on human variation and diversity.

22.  Discuss gene therapy and the human genome project

    A.        Chronicle advances in gene therapy through recent cases.

    B.        Discuss several types of gene therapy and the solutions to genetic disease that they offer by describing possible vectors, specific target cells, and the expected outcome of various therapies.

    C.        Describe the limitations of gene therapy.

    D.        Discuss how genes are being enlisted in ingenious ways to fight cancer and AIDS.

    E.        List the basic goals of the Human Genome Project.

    F.        List several model organisms and describe how model organisms are useful in the study of human genes.

    G.        Describe some of the bioethical controversies that have arisen as a result of the knowledge gained in deciphering the human genome.

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