BIO 152W - Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Instructional Contact Hours: 6
Prepares for various allied health and nursing professions as first course of two semester sequence. Provides an introduction to the basic principles of chemistry and biochemistry as they relate to human physiology. Gives major consideration to the anatomy and physiology of cells and tissues (including blood) and the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscle, nervous, and endocrine.
Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 3, WRITING LEVEL 3 AND MATH LEVEL 3. Recommended: BIO 130W or high school chemistry.
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 45
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science Lab
Outcomes and Objectives 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between anatomy and physiology in the human body.
A. Define anatomy and physiology.
B. Name (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.
2. Demonstrate an understanding of homeostasis.
A. Define homeostasis.
B. Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
C. Define positive feedback and describe its role in the body.
D. Give an example of each of the above types of homeostatic mechanisms.
E. Provide an example of how homeostatic imbalance results in disease.
3. Speak accurately in the language of anatomy and physiology.
A. Describe the anatomical position.
B. Use correct anatomical terminology to describe body planes, body sections, body regions and body directions.
C. Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions.
D. Name the three specific serous membranes (pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal), their two layers (visceral and parietal), and their functions.
E. Describe the four quadrants of the torso: left upper (LUQ), right upper (RUQ), left lower (LLQ), and right lower (RLQ).
F. Identify the major organs in the four quadrants (such as the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, appendix, urinary bladder, ovaries, and gall bladder).
G. Describe the nine abdominopelvic regions: epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric, hypochondriac (L/R), lumbar (L/R), and iliac (L/R).
H. Identify the major organs in the abdominopelvic regions (liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, appendix, urinary bladder, ovaries, and gall bladder).
4. Demonstrate an understanding of basic chemistry as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.
A. Define chemical elements and list the four elements that form the bulk of body matter.
B. Define and distinguish between the terms atom, molecule, isotope and ion.
C. List the subatomic particles; describe their relative masses, charges and positions in the atom.
D. Define atomic number, atomic weight, mass number, isotope, and radioisotope.
E. Distinguish between compounds, mixtures, solutions and suspensions.
F. Define the differences between polar and non-polar compounds.
G. Differentiate clearly between matter and energy and between potential energy and kinetic energy.
H. Explain the role of valence electrons in chemical bonding and in relation to the octet rule.
I. Compare and contrast ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds.
J. Use chemical notation to symbolize chemical reactions.
K. Identify three major types of chemical reactions (dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, and exchange).
L. Describe the major factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions.
M. Use metric measurements for length, mass, and volume.
5. Demonstrate an understanding of basic biochemistry as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.
A. Define the terms acid, base, buffers, acidosis, and alkalosis.
B. Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis.
C. Explain the concept of pH.
D. Describe how buffering maintains blood pH.
E. Compare and contrast the building blocks, general structures, and biological functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
F. Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in the formation and breakdown of organic molecules.
G. Describe the four levels of protein structure, and how these affect the action of enzymes.
H. Describe the general mechanism of enzyme activity.
6. Describe cellular physiology.
A. Define the terms diffusion, osmolarity, dialysis, dynamic equilibrium, gradient, osmosis, selectively permeable membrane, solute, solvent, solution, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, active transport, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis (pinocytosis and phagocytosis), and the fluid mosaic model.
B. Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane, including the fluid mosaic model and membrane proteins and their functions.
C. Differentiate between active and passive transport processes relative to energy source, substances transported, direction and mechanism.
D. Compare and contrast between the locations and ionic compositions of the ICF and ECF including plasma and interstitial fluid.
E. Explain the role of osmosis and osmotic pressure in controlling the movement of water through cell membranes.
7. Describe the structural anatomy of a cell.
A. Define the terms organelle, cytoplasm, cytosol, plasma membrane, nucleus, and cell.
B. Describe the functions of lysosomes and peroxisomes, cilia, flagella, nucleolus, nucleus, nuclear envelope, centrioles, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (SER and RER), Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and vacuoles.
C. Describe the importance of cell junctions (gap, desmosomes, and tight) in cellular physiology.
8. Discuss the process of ATP formation during cellular respiration.
A. Define the terms glycolysis, lactic acid fermentation, Krebs Cycle (TCA), and the oxidative phosphorylation (ETC).
B. Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism.
C. Discuss the equation ADP + P <- -> ATP.
D. Distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic processes in terms of where they occur in the cell, energy yield, and end products.
9. Discuss the significance of nucleic acids.
A. Define the terms chromatin, chromosome, complementary base pairing, DNA, RNA, DNA replication, gene, mutation, nitrogenous base, nucleic acid, nucleotide, and template.
B. Recognize and describe the components of DNA and RNA nucleotides.
C. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA both chemically and physically.
D. Describe the process of DNA replication.
E. Explain the importance of DNA replication.
F. Predict the complementary strand of nucleotides that is created from a given DNA template.
10. Demonstrate an understanding of cellular reproduction.
A. Describe the key events of each phase of the cell life cycle (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase).
B. Explain the significance of the mitotic cycle of somatic cell division for most tissues and the two exceptions to this cycle for adult cells (cardiac muscle and nervous tissue).
C. Explain how cancer is a disruption of the normal cell cycle.
D. Describe the role of stem cells in tissue regeneration.
11. Demonstrate an understanding of protein synthesis as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.
A. Define autosomal vs. sex-linked (X-linked) traits and dominant vs. recessive traits.
B. Explain the function of genes and the meaning of "genetic code".
C. Name the two phases of protein synthesis (transcription and translation).
D. Describe the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA in each phase of protein synthesis.
E. Given a strand of DNA and an amino acid-nucleic acid dictionary, predict the amino acid sequence in a polypeptide.
F. Predict the outcome of a protein synthesized if a substitution of one nitrogenous base is made for another nitrogenous base.
G. Explain how a mutation may result in an altered expression of a trait.
H. Explain how the absence or low levels of correctly formed proteins may contribute to genetic diseases.
I. Explain the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, genes, mutations and proteins.
J. Explain the basic function of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in controlling cell replication.
12. Demonstrate an understanding of the major tissue types in the human body.
A. Name the four major types of tissues found in the human body (epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous).
B. Discuss the general characteristics of epithelial tissue that make it well suited as a tissue that lines surfaces and cavities.
C. List the major functions of epithelial tissue.
D. Name and describe the three "layering" arrangements (simple, pseudostratified, stratified) of epithelial tissue.
E. Name and describe the three "shape" categories (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) of epithelial tissue.
F. Name the major types of epithelium and identify an organ in which each is found.
G. Discuss the components of connective tissue that account for its varied functions and locations in the human body.
H. Describe the types of connective tissue found in the body, and indicate the general functions for each type.
I. Discuss the general characteristics of muscle tissue that allow it to be used in propulsion of the skeleton and hollow organs.
J. List the three types of muscle tissue (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth).
K. Compare and contrast the three types of muscle tissue based on the following criteria: location, control (voluntary or involuntary), cell shape, presence or absence of striations, and the number of nuclei.
L. List the two cell types found in nervous tissue (neurons and neuroglia).
M. Discuss the characteristics and functions of each cell type found in nervous tissue.
N. Describe how tissues are used to create four membrane types (cutaneous, mucous, serous, and synovial) and identify a location for each type in the body.
13. Explain the role of the integumentary system as a functioning organ of the human body.
A. List several important functions of the integumentary system and explain how these functions are accomplished.
B. Name the two layers of the cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) and describe their functions.
C. Name the accessory structures (derivatives) of the integument and describe their
D. Identify on a model or drawing the three major layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis) and the accessory structures (derivatives) of the skin.
E. Name the five layers (strata) of the epidermis: basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum.
F. Describe how stratification leads to thick vs. thin skin.
G. Compare and contrast the function and location of keratinocytes and melanocytes.
14. Demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy of the skeletal system.
A. List the components of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
B. Define the four principal types of bones in the skeleton (short, long, flat, and irregular).
C. Compare and contrast a typical long bone and flat bone.
D. Describe the histological features of bone tissue.
E. Describe the principle types of surface structures on bones (condyles, trochanters,
F. Relate the structure of surface structures with their functions (muscle attachment, passageways for nerves, etc.).
G. Discuss the function of the fontanelles of the skull.
H. Identify the foraminae of the skull as listed in the anatomy objective list along with the major structures(s) that pass through these openings.
I. Identify all skeletal structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective List.
J. Identify the five regions of the vertebral column (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal).
K. Discuss the function of intervertebral disks.
L. Contrast normal spinal curvatures with spinal disorders (lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis).
15. Demonstrate an understanding of bone physiology.
A. Identify the major components of the skeletal system.
B. Define ossification.
C. Discuss the functions of the skeletal system.
D. Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone tissue.
E. Differentiate between the functions of osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
F. Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification, endochondral ossification, and appositional growth.
G. Describe the sequence of events seen in fracture repair and discuss some of the factors influencing the length of time needed for repair.
H. Discuss the chemical composition of bone and the relative advantages conferred by its organic and its inorganic components.
I. Identify the major glands affecting bone physiology (the parathyroid glands and parafollicular tissue of the thyroid glands).
J. Describe how parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and human growth hormone (hGH) affect bone growth and maintenance.
K. Explain the role of PTH and calcitonin on blood calcium levels and bone density.
L. Explain the role of exercise and mechanical stress on bone remodeling (Wolff's Law).
16. Demonstrate an understanding of joints, focusing on synovial joints.
A. Name the three major functional categories of joints (synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, and diarthrotic) and compare the range of motion (ROM) allowed by each.
B. Describe the structural characteristics shared by all synovial joints.
C. Name and describe (or perform) the common body movements (flexion, extension, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation, supination, pronation, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, elevation, and depression).
D. List at least 5 different subgroups of the synovial joints and identify 1-2 examples of each of these joints.
E. List the bones forming the following joints: wrist, knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, elbow and jaw.
17. Demonstrate an understanding of the role of muscle tissue in the human body.
A. Define the terms fascia, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, aponeuroses, muscle tetanus, muscle fatigue, isotonic contractions, isometric contractions, oxygen debt, motor unit, and muscle twitch.
B. Explain the sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction (with actin, myosin, troponin, and tropomyosin).
C. Explain how muscle fibers are stimulated to contract.
D. Describe a muscle twitch myogram and describe the events occurring during its three
E. Explain the muscle response to changes in stimulation frequency and strength.
F. Compare and contrast psychological fatigue with physiological fatigue.
G. Compare and contrast the three ways in which ATP is regenerated in skeletal muscle (using creatine phosphate, glycolysis, and aerobic metabolism).
18. Demonstrate proficiency with specific skeletal muscle names.
A. Define the terms origin, insertion, and prime mover.
B. Identify all structures listed on the Biology 152 Anatomy Objective List.
C. Identify the major function of all of the muscles listed in the anatomy objectives with respect to the following body movements: flexion, extension, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction, supination, pronation, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, elevation, and depression, and rotation.
19. Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamentals of the nervous system.
A. List the basic functions of the nervous system.
B. Define the terms central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
C. List the major components of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous systems.
D. State the function of neurons and the following neuroglial subgroups: Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells.
E. Define neuron, describe its important structural components, and relate each to a functional role.
F. Differentiate between a nerve and a tract, and between a nucleus and a ganglion, and between gray and white matter.
G. Explain the importance of the myelin sheath and describe how it is formed in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
H. Describe the function of sensory, motor, and interneurons (or association neurons).
I. Explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons (being sure to include resting membrane potential, sodium-potassium pumps, threshold, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, and ion channels).
J. Explain the importance of refractory periods.
K. Define saltatory conduction and contrast it to conduction along unmyelinated fibers.
L. Describe how information transmission occurs at a chemical synapse.
M. Describe the general functions of neurotransmitters.
N. Make predictions about the outcome expected with drugs that mimic, inhibit, or destroy neurotransmitters, bind with neurotransmitter receptors, or when degrading enzymes (e.g. AChE) are introduced into the synapse.
O. Discuss the conditions under which nerve cell/fiber repair can occur.
20. Demonstrate an understanding of the central nervous system.
A. Identify all structures listed on the Biology 152 Anatomy Objective List.
B. Describe the functions of all structures listed on the Biology 152 Anatomy Objective List.
C. Describe how the meninges (dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protect the CNS.
D. Describe the function, location and formation of cerebrospinal fluid and how it flows in one continuous loop.
E. Explain the function of the ascending (posterior) white column and where it originates and terminates.
F. Explain the function of the descending (lateral and anterior) white column and where they originate and terminate.
21. Demonstrate an understanding of the peripheral nervous system.
A. List the components peripheral nervous system.
B. List the 12 pairs of cranial nerves by name and number and give a function for each nerve set.
C. Define: ganglia, nerves (cranial and spinal), and plexuses (cervical, brachial, and lumbar, and sacral).
D. Identify the five components of a reflex arc (receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, and effector).
22. Demonstrate an understanding of the special senses.
A. Compare and contrast the roles of rods and cones in vision.
B. Trace the visual pathway from the eye to the optic cortex.
C. Trace the sound conduction pathway from the external auditory meatus to the Organ of Corti.
D. Explain the role of the semicircular canals and the vestibule in maintaining balance (static vs. dynamic).
E. Identify the structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective List.
F. Identify the functions of those structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective List.
23. Demonstrate a basic understanding of the autonomic nervous system.
A. Compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems relative to effectors, efferent pathways, and the neurotransmitters that are released.
B. Define cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.
C. Compare and contrast the general functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems, sweat glands and pupils.
D. Make predictions about drugs that mimic or inhibit adrenergic or cholinergic effects.
24: Demonstrate an understanding of the endocrine system.
A. Distinguish between endocrine glands and exocrine organs.
B. Define hormone, target tissue (cell or organ), and their receptors.
C. Identify the structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective list.
D. Describe the effects of hormones produced by the following endocrine glands: hypothalamus, anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland (medulla vs. cortex), kidneys, pancreas, pineal gland (body), thymus, ovary, testis.
E. Explain how the adrenal medullary secretions act as supplements to sympathetic
F. Compare and contrast how the endocrine system and nervous system function to maintain homeostasis.
G. Describe the control of hormonal secretions via feedback cycles (humoral, hormonal, and neural) and provide several examples.
H. Discuss how the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are structurally and functionally related.
I. Make predictions about potential effects due to hypersecretion or hyposecretion of hormones released by major endocrine glands.
25. Demonstrate an understanding of the composition of blood.
A. Define the principal characteristics of blood and its functions in the body.
B. Discuss the structure of erythrocytes and their function in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
C. Define erythropoiesis.
D. Explain the function of erythropoietin (EPO) and the stimulus for production.
E. Describe the life cycle of an erythrocyte and the fate of bilirubin, heme and globin.
F. List the five subgroups of leukocytes (monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their specific functions.
G. Discuss the purpose of laboratory tests such as hematocrit, hemoglobin, differential WBC count, and platelet count.
H. List the major components of plasma and explain their importance.
I. Describe where vascular spasm, platelets, clotting factors and fibrinolysis fit into the blood clotting sequence.
J. Identify the role of prothrombin, thrombin, and fibrin in the coagulation process.
K. Compare red to yellow bone marrow in adults.
L. Describe the role of the hemocytoblast in formed element production.
M. Explain ABO and Rh blood groups and their consequences with erythroblastis fetalis.
N. Make predictions about compatible and incompatible blood transfusions.
26. Perform writing tasks to promote learning.
27. Write effectively for a specific audience or purpose.
28. Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.
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