Jun 15, 2024  
2022 - 2023 Catalog 
2022 - 2023 Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIO 241 - Physiology

Credits: 4
Instructional Contact Hours: 6

Requires background in anatomy and chemistry. Studies the functional integration of the major organ systems of animals, with special emphasis on the human body. Emphasizes the ways in which the various systems interact to maintain homeostasis of the individual. Illustrates through laboratory experiments both classical and modern approaches to the physiology of various organ systems.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 140W  or BIO 171  
Corequisite(s): None
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 45
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science Lab
Pass/NoCredit: Yes

Outcomes and Objectives  

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of homeostasis and system integration.
    1. Define homeostasis
    2. Identify the stimulus, the mechanism and the response in a feedback system.
    3. Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
    4. Define positive feedback and explain why it usually causes homeostatic imbalance. Also note specific situations in which it contributes to homeostasis, or normal body function.
    5. Explain the significance of homeostasis for living systems.
    6. Describe how positive and negative feedback are involved in homeostatic regulation.
    7. Apply the stimulus-mechanism-response model to at least two specific homeostatic disruptions (example: increase in blood calcium levels; increase in body temperature)
  2.   Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between anatomy and physiology in the human body.
    1. Define physiology and describe various specialties of each discipline.
    2. Name (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.
    3. List the 11 organ systems of the body and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system.
    4. Describe at least two examples in the human body of form following function.
  3. Demonstrate familiarity with the organs of the respiratory system and its functions.
    1. Discuss the functions of the major components of the respiratory system.
    2. Discuss relationship between movement of diaphragm and the volume of thoracic cavity.
    3. Discuss relationship between movement of external intercostal and the volume of thoracic cavity.
    4. Discuss relationship between movement of internal and external intercostals and rectus abdominis and the volume of the thoracic cavity.
    5. Describe the effects on the pleural cavity and lung function as result of pneumothorax.
    6. Explain the way in which sounds are produced by the vocal cords
  4. Demonstrate familiarity with the microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system and the functions.
    1. Explain the relationship between the capillary bed and the alveolus.
    2. Explain the function of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract as it relates to serving as a mechanical barrier to antigens and particulate matter in the air.
  5. Demonstrate an understanding of the nervous system structures that control the respiratory cycle.
    1. Describe the regions of the medulla and pons that control respirations.
    2. Describe the locations of the chemoreceptors that provide sensory information relative to respiratory control.
    3. Describe the locations of the stretch receptors that provide information relative to respiratory control.
    4. Describe the ANS pathways that connect the sensory data relative to respiratory control to the effector or motor responses on the muscles of respiration.
    5. Explain why an individual can suffer major damage to the cerebral cortex and yet still manage to continue living.
    6. Explain the Hering-Breuer reflex as it relates to prevention of over-inflation of the lungs.
  6. Describe how blood calcium levels and the skeletal system are intertwined physiologically.
    1. Integrate how changes in common environmental variables will affect homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
    2. Describe how changes in the hormones used in bone resorption and/or calcification (ex GH, T3 and T4, parahormone, calcitonin, and androgens) can affect the skeletal system
  7. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the microscopic anatomy and/or physiology of muscle tissues and their functions.
    1. List the characteristics and functions of muscle tissue.
    2. Compare the location, microscopic appearance, nervous control, and functions of the three kinds of muscle tissue.
    3. Define fascia, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, and aponeuroses and list their modes of attachment to muscles.
    4. Identify the histological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue.
    5. Contrast cardiac

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