Jul 20, 2024  
2022 - 2023 Catalog 
    
2022 - 2023 Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIO 153W - Human Anatomy & Physiology II

Credits: 4
Instructional Contact Hours: 6

BIO 153W is a continuation of BIO 152W . Investigates the anatomy and physiology of the following systems: circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Includes human developmental biology and fluids and electrolytes.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 152W  with a grade of "C" or higher OR BIO 140W  with a "B" or higher
Corequisite(s): None
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 45
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science Lab
Pass/NoCredit: Yes

Outcomes and Objectives  

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the lymphatic system and body defenses.
    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy of the lymphatic system.
      1. Describe the anatomical similarities and differences of the lymph vessels and circulatory vessels
      2. Identify and describe lymph capillaries, trunks, vessels, ducts, nodes, spleen, tonsils, thymus and MALT.
      3. Differentiate between lymph and chyle
      4. List and identify the large lymphatic vessels and the areas that they serve
      5. List the regional groupings of lymph nodes
      6. List the three types of tonsils
      7. Describe how the anatomy of the capillaries, vessels, and nodes allow for their functional ability
      8. Describe the structure and cellular components of lymph nodes.
      9. Identify all lymphatic structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List
    2.  Demonstrate an understanding of lymphatic system physiology.
      1. Explain the functions of the lymphatic system.
      2. Explain the role of the following organs and associated tissues of the lymphatic system: lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, thymus gland, and mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT).
      3. Describe the function of lymphatic capillaries, vessels, trunks, thoracic duct, and right lymphatic duct and relate to flow of lymph.
      4. Describe how the structure of lymph node correlates with its function.
      5. Describe how blood capillary flow and function relates to lymphatic capillary flow and function.
      6. Define edema and list causes of edema.
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of body defenses, both innate and adaptive.
      1. Define immunity.
      2. Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity.
      3. Describe the surface barriers and their protective functions (first lines of defense)
        1. Skin and mucous membranes (sweat, lysozyme, pH, bacterial flora)
        2. Phagocytic cells (macrophages and neutrophils)
        3. Antimicrobial proteins (complement and interferons)
        4. Natural killer cells
      4. Describe the inflammatory process (second line of defense). Identify several inflammatory chemicals and indicate their specific roles.
        1. Identify the importance of inflammation.
        2. List the signs of inflammation and what factors lead to those signs.
        3. Briefly describe white blood cell mobilization (diapedesis and chemotaxis).
      5. Define antigen and describe how antigens affect the immune system.
      6. Follow antigen processing in the body.
      7. Describe the responsibilities of B cells, memory cells, and plasma cells as it relates to humoral immunity.
        1. Introduce the origin and maturation process of B cells.
        2. Describe the structure of an antibody monomer.
        3. Know the five classes of antibodies.
        4. Explain the functions of antibodies and uses of antibodies.
        5. Compare and contrast active and passive humoral immunity.
        6. Differentiate between the primary and secondary responses to an antigen.
      8. Describe the functions of cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells and memory T cells as it relates to cell-mediated immunity.
        1. Introduce the origin and maturation process of T cells
      9. Define autoimmunity and gives examples of autoimmune diseases.
  2. Demonstrate an understanding of the cardiovascular system.
    1. Develop an understanding of cardiac muscle tissue and heart anatomy.
      1. Discuss the specific characteristics of cardiac muscle.
      2. Describe the size, shape, location and orientation of the heart in the thorax.
      3. Name and describe the layers of the heart wall.
      4. Name the covering of the heart and describe its responsibility.
      5. Name and identify the major vessels entering and exiting the heart
      6. Name and identify the chambers of the heart and distinguish any structures located within each chamber.
      7. Clearly distinguish between the responsibility of the atria and ventricles and how their anatomy correlates with those responsibilities.
      8. Name and identify the valves and discuss their responsibility
      9. Trace the flow of blood through the heart.
      10. Identify differences between the fetal heart and the heart after birth and the associated blood flow.
      11. Identify all heart structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    2. Discuss cardiac physiology
      1. Name the components of the conduction system of the heart and trace the conduction pathway.
      2. Illustrate and explain the basic aspects of a normal electrocardiogram tracing. Relate the EKG pattern to the activity of the electrical conduction system of the heart.
      3. Define action potential and discuss how sodium, potassium, and calcium are important in cardiac muscle contraction.
      4. Briefly describe how heart function is controlled.
      5. Define and describe ventricular diastole and systole.
      6. Define and explain cardiac output, preload, afterload, EDV, ESV, heart rate and stroke volume.  Discuss how these are all interrelated.
      7. Define Frank Starling's law of the heart.
      8. Discuss and describe the timing of events of the cardiac cycle.
      9. Name the heart sounds and how are they created.  Define murmur.
      10. Understand the importance of blood flow through the coronary vessels and relate that to the development of the following: hypoxia, ischemia, infarction, heart failure.
      11. Discuss and describe congestive heart failure and how pulmonary congestion and peripheral congestion may develop.
      12. Define normal sinus rhythm and the following terms related to arrhythmias: tachycardia, bradycardia, ectopic beats, flutter, fibrillation, SA and AV nodal block.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of and describe vessels of the circulatory system.
      1. Differentiate between arteries, veins, and capillaries., regarding anatomy, function and direction of flow.
      2. Describe the anatomy of an artery, a vein, and a capillary
      3. List and describe the three layers that comprise blood vessel walls.
      4. Describe the flow of blood from arterial flow through a capillary bed to venous flow.
      5. Identify all arteries and veins listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    4. Develop a knowledge of the role blood vessels play in delivering blood to tissues.
      1. Define and explain capillary osmotic pressure, capillary hydrostatic pressure, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure
      2. Differentiate between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
      3. Define and explain mean arterial pressure.
      4. Identify the mechanisms the body uses to control blood pressure (baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and kidney function)
      5. Describe how one measures blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.
      6. Define resistance, blood flow, blood volume, blood pressure and hypertension. Explain how these are interrelated.
      7. Differentiate between pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit.
      8. Describe the importance of the hepatic portal system.
      9. Explain how blood flow to various parts of the body can be adjusted based on the metabolic demand of those tissues.
      10. Define shock and differentiate between the various types.
      11. Define and explain arteriosclerosis.
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the respiratory system.
    1. Demonstrate familiarity with the anatomy of the organs of the respiratory system.
      1. Identify the tissues that make up the major organs of the respiratory system.
      2. Follow the flow of air from the point of entry to the point of gas exchange within the respiratory system.
      3. Differentiate between ventilation and respiration.
      4. Define diffusion and describe how it is vital to the functioning of the respiratory system.
      5. Discuss the functional differences between the different structures of the respiratory system.
      6. Identify the muscles (diaphragm, intercostals) involved with ventilation.
      7. Describe the effects on the pleural cavity and lung function as result of pneumothorax.
      8. Explain the relationship between the capillary bed and the alveolus.
      9. Explain the function of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract as it relates protecting the respiratory tract.
      10. Identify all respiratory structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of the nervous system structures that control the respiratory cycle.
      1. Describe the regions of the medulla and pons that control ventilation.
      2. Describe the locations of the chemoreceptors that provide sensory information relative to respiratory control.
      3. Describe the locations of the stretch receptors that provide information relative to respiratory control.
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the respiratory cycle.
      1. Identify and define the terms associated with spirometry; i.e. tidal volume, etc.
      2. State and briefly explain the following gas laws as they relate to the respiratory system: Dalton’s Law, Henry’s Law, and Boyle’s Law. 
      3. Describe surfactant and how it functions in the respiratory system.
      4. Relate the effects of increased levels of CO2 in the plasma and the corresponding drop in pH in the CSF to an increase in respiration (the Bohr Effect).
      5. Compare the contrast the roles that increased CO2 levels and decreased O2 levels have on respiration. (the Haldane Effect).
      6. Correlate atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, lung compliance, and intra-pleural pressures with inhalation and exhalation.
    4. Demonstrate knowledge regarding the steps in respiration.
      1. Regarding pulmonary ventilation:
        1. Describe how the muscles of respiration function in inhalation and exhalation.
        2. Identify the significance of the phrenic nerve and intercostal nerves in controlling the muscles of respiration.
      2. Regarding external respiration:
        1. Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements at the alveoli.
      3. Regarding respiratory gas transport:
        1. Describe the ways in which oxygen is transported from the alveoli to the tissues via the cardiovascular system as oxyhemoglobin and dissolved in the plasma.
        2. Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to carry H+.
        3. Explain the effect that pH has on O2 carrying capacity by the hemoglobin molecule.
        4. Explain the effect that temperature has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
        5. Explain the effect that CO2 concentration has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
        6. Describe the ways in which carbon dioxide is transported from the tissues to the alveoli via the cardiovascular system as carbaminohemoglobin, dissolved in the plasma, and as a bicarbonate ion in the plasma (slow and fast mechanisms).
        7. Identify the importance of the chloride shift as it relates to carbon dioxide transport.
      4. Regarding internal respiration:
        1. Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements at the tissues.
    5. Briefly introduce common respiratory disorders.
    6. Relate acidosis and alkalosis to various types of respiratory distress.
  4. Demonstrate an understanding of the digestive system and nutrition.
    1. Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the human digestive system.
      1. Identify the organs and structures of the gastrointestinal tract versus the associated accessory organs and structures.
      2. Trace the flow of foodstuffs as they pass through the alimentary canal.
      3. Identify all digestive system structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    2. Describe the functions of the organs and structures of the digestive tract and the accessory organs and structures.
      1. Define mastication, deglutition, enzyme, mechanical and chemical digestion, bolus, chyme, segmentation, and peristalsis.
      2. List the major enzymes used by the digestive system.
      3. Explain the general way in which enzymes work.
      4. Describe the role of the liver in the digestive process.
      5. Describe both the exocrine and endocrine roles of the pancreas in the digestive process.
        1. Briefly explain how diabetes mellitus may develop.
      6. Describe how the structure of the small intestine and large intestine relate to the digestive process, including absorption and packaging of wastes.
    3. Develop a basic knowledge of nutrition.
      1. Define calorie, kilocalorie (Calorie), catabolism, anabolism, metabolism, ATP, nutrient and nutrition.
      2. Describe the components of a balanced diet including the concept of recommended daily amounts.
      3. Differentiate between water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals
      4. Identify the major functions of each of the following vitamins: D, E, A, K, B1, B2, B6, Niacin, Folic Acid, B12, and C.
      5. Briefly describe the steps involved in cellular respiration and how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins may be used to produce ATP.
  5. Demonstrate an understanding of the urinary system.
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the anatomy of the urinary system.
      1. Understand the association between the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
      2. Identify the major internal divisions and microscopic structures of the renal tissue.
      3. Differentiate between cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons. Describe the anatomical differences between the two types.
      4. Identify all urinary system structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    2. Demonstrate understanding of the physiology of the kidney.
      1. Trace the flow of blood through the kidney.
      2. Discuss and describe the three major processes in urine formation.
        1. Give specific examples of substances that are transported during these three processes.
      3. Explain the various pressures that affect the rate of filtrate formation in the glomerulus.
      4. Explain purpose of the counter-current mechanism.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of hormones that affect the function of the urinary system.
      1. For each of the following hormones or hormone pathways, the student should be able to discuss:  where they are produced, target tissue of hormone, what triggers the hormone’s release and what slows down or turns off this hormone release:
        1. Aldosterone
        2. ADH
        3. Parathormone
        4. Renin-Angiotensin Pathway
    4. Briefly describe common diseases and disorders that affect the urinary system.
    5. Demonstrate understanding of urinalysis.
      1. Detail the different tests that make up a complete urinalysis.
      2. Know the normal components of urine in a healthy individual.
      3. The student shall be familiar with terms that are used to describe abnormal urines; i.e. glycosuria, polyuria, etc.
      4. Relate abnormal findings on a urinalysis with possible diagnoses.
    6. Demonstrate knowledge of the distribution of body fluids.
      1. Identify the different fluid compartments of the body (and the subdivisions of the extracellular fluid).
      2. Differentiate between the components of the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid.
    7. Demonstrate knowledge of the mechanisms for the regulation of water balance.
      1. Discuss water intake vs. water output on a 24-hour basis.
      2. Relate the details of the thirst mechanism to water balance.
      3. Review the role of ADH and osmoreceptors to overall water balance.
    8. Demonstrate understanding of the concept of electrolyte balance.
      1. The student will be able to discuss the mechanisms whereby the human body maintains the appropriate electrolyte balance for the following electrolytes:
        1. Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg++, Ca++, and PO4-3
    9. Demonstrate knowledge of the concept of acid-base balance.
      1. Define acid, base, pH, and buffer.
      2. Differentiate between weak acids and strong acids as well as weak bases and strong bases.
      3. Explain the bicarbonate buffering system and illustrate the process via the chemical reactions.
      4. Explain the phosphate buffering system and illustrate the process via the chemical reactions.
      5. Explain the protein buffering system and know that it is amphoteric.
      6. Define and provide medical reasons for the following: metabolic acidosis or alkalosis and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
  6. Demonstrate an understanding of human reproduction and development.
    1. Develop a knowledge of male reproductive anatomy and physiology.
      1. Describe the function of each of the structures in the male reproductive system.
      2. Describe the route sperm take from the point of production to outside of the body.
      3. Describe the divisions of the male urethra.
      4. Describe the components of the male penis: glans, shaft, corpus spongiosum, corpora cavernosa, prepuce
      5. Describe the contribution of each of the glands of the male reproductive system in the production of semen.
      6. Briefly explain the blood flow to the penis.
      7. Outline the events of spermatogenesis. (Note differences between mitosis and meiosis.)
      8. Describe the anatomy of the sperm.
      9. Describe the roles of the following hormones: GnRH, FSH, LH/ICSH and testosterone.
      10. Identify all male reproductive structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    2. Develop knowledge of female reproductive anatomy and physiology.
      1. Describe the function of each of the structures in the female reproductive system.
      2. Describe the changes of the ovary during the 28 day cycle.
      3. Outline the events of oogenesis. (Note the differences between mitosis and meiosis.)
      4. Define and discuss ovulation.
      5. Define the following: Graafian follicle, corpus luteum, corpus albicans.
      6. Describe the path of the oocyte/ovum from ovary to uterus.
      7. Describe the structure of the uterus and the three layers of the uterine wall.
      8. Define menstruation. Describe how the changes in the ovary during the 28 day cycle correlate with uterine changes, thus menstruation.
      9. Describe the female vulva and all of its components.
      10. Describe the roles of the following hormones: GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone.
      11. Compare and contrast the female clitoris to the male penis.
      12. Identify all female reproductive structures listed on the BIO 153 Anatomy Objectives List.
    3. Discuss contraception methods for both males and females.
    4. Develop knowledge of pregnancy, birth and lactation.
      1. Define and discuss pregnancy, implantation, gestation, placenta, and parturition.
      2. Describe the role of the uterus in pregnancy.
      3. Describe the role of the cervix during pregnancy.
      4. Describe the changes in the uterus that occur as a result of pregnancy.
      5. Describe the role of the female hormones in preparation of the uterus.
      6. Describe the hormonal state of a pregnant female.
      7. Describe the hormones produced by the placenta and the role they play.
      8. Describe the three stages of parturition.
      9. Discuss the roles of relaxin, oxytocin, human chorionic gonadotropin, and prolactin.
      10. Define lactation. Identify mammary tissues and associated structures.
    5. Develop knowledge of embryonic and fetal development.
      1. Define zygote, blastocyst, fertilization, conception, embryo, fetus.
      2. Describe the stages of development from the egg to fertilization to birth.
      3. Refer to the changes that occur between the fetal and infant circulations.
      4. List and describe the germ layers and identify to which organ systems they give rise.
      5. Describe the roles of the following extra-embryonic membranes: amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac.



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