BIO 203W - General MicrobiologyCredits: 4
Instructional Contact Hours: 6
Surveys the microbes associated with infectious diseases, including the bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa's. Emphasizes the health care aspects and the distribution and activities of microbes as related to the following: microbial nutrition and anatomy, growth, disease, epidemiology, infection and immunity. Uses labs that stress aseptic techniques and that develop skills necessary to handle microbes in health care settings, including the characterization of unknown microbes.
Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 2, WRITING LEVEL 2, MATH LEVEL 2 and BIO 111W with a “B” (3.0) minimum grade; or BIO 140W or BIO 152W or BIO 171 , or BIO 241 each with a “C” (2.0) minimum grade.
Lecture Hours: 45 Lab Hours: 45
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science Lab
Outcomes and Objectives
- Demonstrate understanding of scientific methods.
- Make and interpret observations.
- Formulate and test hypotheses.
- Conduct and evaluate experiments.
- Collect and analyze data.
- Interpret questions, statements, texts, theories, problems, points of view, symbols, and observations.
- Draw and assess conclusions.
- Report results.
- Apply microbiology concepts to real world applications.
- Use resources appropriate to the discipline.
- Use word processing skills to prepare designated assignments.
- Use the library for searching and accessing information pertinent to class assignments.
- Use the Internet to transmit and receive e-mail and search topics pertinent to class assignments.
- Evaluate source and quality of information gathered through various search mechanisms for currency, appropriateness, and truthfulness.
- Use an appropriate style to cite and document sources.
- Communicate in the language of the discipline.
- Gather information from a text, organize and integrate the information into a format that illustrates patterns, clusters, and hierarchies of information.
- Write for a specific audience and purpose and use writing tasks to promote learning. Produce a formal written report in the language of the discipline.
- Interact productively with others and use effective listening skills.
- Communicate using appropriate Microbiology terminology.
- Use critical thinking skills.
- Interpret and integrate concepts and build on previously learned concepts.
- Reflect ethically and apply ethical decisions.
- Formulate solutions to problems.
- Draw logical conclusions based on data, evidence, theories, viewpoints, policies, and interpretations.
- Access, analyze, and use information to make predictions based on the evidence discovered.
- Identify, compare, and contrast trends and patterns.
- Distinguish between simple correlation and cause-and-effect.
- Demonstrate teamwork skills.
- Show respect for others and value and respect differences.
- Work in organized groups to accomplish tasks.
- Meet deadlines determined by the instructor.
- Demonstrate appropriate microbiology laboratory skills.
- List and describe safety precautions required in microbiology laboratories to protect workers.
- Understand the purpose of the current Exposure Control manual for Category-A students.
- Demonstrate proper aseptic techniques.
- Demonstrate proper hand washing, disinfectant procedures, and spill cleanup.
- Perform the proper use of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE).
- Select the correct use of laboratory equipment used for working with microorganisms.
- Identify the correct staining methods used to identify microorganisms.
- Perform the Gram Stain and interpret results.
- Develop proficiency in the use of the microscope in the laboratory including oil immersion.
- Understand the use of general media in the laboratory.
- Perform and evaluate the use of general biochemical tests in the laboratory.
- Describe how microorganisms are collected, inoculated, cultured, incubated, and autoclaved.
- Perform the correct inoculation techniques.
- Successfully isolate bacterial colonies using the streak plate technique.
- Perform and evaluate antibiotic sensitivity tests and identify antibiotic resistance on a Culture & Sensitivity (C & S) plate.
- Perform and evaluate water and food quality
- Apply the use of urinalysis in the laboratory.
- Perform the Serial Dilution and the Standard Plate Count and explain their technique, advantages, and disadvantages.
- Perform a specimen collection and evaluate how you must take into account aseptic technique, quantity needed, timing of administration, and correct material needed.
- Apply the scientific method and sequence of tests to identify an unknown bacterium.
- Explain the major concepts of microorganisms.
- Explain how microorganisms are classified into major taxonomic categories.
- Explain the basis upon which the major types of microorganisms are classified.
- Identify the Genus and species of an organism using the binomial system of nomenclature.
- List the structural differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
- Identify the differences in the structure and general functional differences between of viruses, viroids, prions, archaea, bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi.
- Demonstrate that microorganisms are everywhere in the environment, including in and on your body.
- Describe the beneficial activities of microorganisms and the application of this understanding to benefit mankind.
- Describe the roles and importance of microbiology in food production, agriculture, industry, and the environment.
- Identify the six common shapes of bacterial cells as: coccus, bacillus, vibrio, coccobacillus, spirals (including spirillium and spirochetes), and pleomorphic.
- Identify the structure and function of bacteria components: cell wall, glycocalyx (capsule and slime layer), fimbriae, pili, flagella, plasmid, chromosome, and ribosome.
- Describe and illustrate the difference between gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
- Describe the significance of endospore spore forming bacteria and identify endospore-forming bacteria.
- Diagram the cycle of the sporulation and germination.
- Describe the structure of the acid fast bacteria.
- Explain the microbial control precautions required for preventing exposure to endospore and acid fast bacteria in the healthcare field.
- Explain why mutations are significant.
- Explain the 3 possible outcomes a mutation may have on a protein.
- Explain the three gene transfer mechanisms.
- Describe and evaluate the various factors that are involved in the development of antibiotic resistance.
- Explain the role of cellular respiration in microbial metabolism.
- Explain the major metabolic pathways for microorganisms.
- Describe the environmental conditions that influence bacterial growth and predict the outcome if conditions are altered.
- Understand microorganisms utilize different energy sources for growth.
- Explain generation time and diagram and label the phases of the bacterial growth curve.
- Evaluate selective and differential media to determine nutritional, biochemical, and behavior differences between different microorganisms.
- Discuss emerging diseases.
- Discuss re-emerging diseases and understand why diseases are re-emerging.
- Define bloodborne pathogen.
- Discuss agents of bioterrorism.
- Explain how biotechnology impacts humans.
- Understand how the use of recombinant DNA technology is used to make beneficial products for humans.
- Understand the potential of STEM cells.
- Explain how to control microbial growth.
- Define sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis and list examples of each.
- Identify and evaluate physical control methods.
- Identify and evaluate chemical control methods.
- Discuss relative effectiveness of various disinfectants used against several common bacteria.
- Understand the characteristics of common antiseptic mode of action.
- Describe the situational use for autoclaving, dry heat sterilization, and chemical sterilization.
- Explain how environmental conditions influence the actions of antimicrobial agents.
- Identify the environmental factors which promote or inhibit microbial growth in foods.
- Explain the difference between food borne infection and food born intoxication and how control methods are employed.
- List and describe the mechanisms of action of major antibiotics that control microbial growth in the body.
- Explain factors that contribute to disease.
- Explain the role of normal microbiota in maintaining health of the human body.
- Explain transient and resident microbiota.
- List areas of the healthy human body which should be sterile.
- Explain the Germ Theory of Disease and understand how the use of Koch’s postulates apply to this theory.
- Describe the relationship between the microbial load in the body and the stages of disease.
- Understand the factors in maintaining normal microbiota and how changes in these factors may result in opportunistic infections.
- Explain how virulence factors contribute to the pathogenicity of some microorganisms.
- List and explain the sequence of events that cause infection in the host.
- List and explain the sequence of events that occur during the stages of disease, including clinical symptoms.
- Describe the typical stages of the viral lytic cycle and the effects of viral a viral infection oh the host cell.
- Understand the differences between the lytic and lysogenic viral replication cycles.
- Understand viral host cell specificity.
- Explain the difference between an exotoxin and an endotoxin.
- Describe the events that must take place for an opportunistic pathogen to cause disease.
- Explain the use of antimicrobial therapy in treating infectious diseases.
- Describe how the human immune system responds to infectious disease.
- List and describe the functional significance of the inflammatory response.
- Identify and illustrate the Innate (non-specific) and Adaptive (specific) mechanisms of host immunity.
- Explain the role of antigen presenting cells in immunity.
- Describe the role of complement.
- Describe the roles of passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity, artificially acquired immunity.
- Compare and contrast primary and secondary responses.
- Illustrate and explain the operation of humoral immunity (antibody-mediated) and cell-mediated immunity.
- Explain how vaccination mimics the primary response.
- List the various forms of vaccines.
- Understand how abnormalities of the immune system can influence its effectiveness.
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