Jan 27, 2022  

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CHM 220 - Organic Chemistry II

Credits: 4

Provides a continuation of CHM 210 with reactions, mechanisms and nomenclature of carbonyl groups, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotides. Includes special topics with applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and industrial fields. Meets the needs of students in medical and health fields, engineering fields, and science majors.

Prerequisite(s): READING LEVEL 2, WRITING LEVEL 2, MATH LEVEL 5 and completion of CHM 210  with a minimum grade of C (2.0).
Corequisite(s): None
Lecture Hours: 60 Lab Hours: 0
Meets MTA Requirement: Natural Science
Pass/NoCredit: Yes

Outcomes and Objectives 1.     Communicate effectively.

     A.          Demonstrate understanding by reading, speaking, and writing.

     B.          Employ critical writing and active listeneing to obtain or convey information.

     C.          Collect and analyze data.

     D.          Identify trends, solve problems, and conclude logically by integrating concepts.

2.    Recognize the importance of the pre-requisite organic chemistry material.

     A.          Explain fundamental concepts of bonding and molecular structure.

     B.          Describe alkane and cycoalkane conformers.

     C.          Explain the important concepts of stereochemistry.

     D.          Recognize the major organic reactions of alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides and aromatic compounds.

3.    Demonstrate an understanding of the basic structures and properties of organic molecules.  

     A.          Use line bonds diagrams to explain chemical structures.

     B.          Describe the stability, bonding, structure and physical properties of amines, alcohols, thiols, sulfides, disulfides, ethers and major carbonyl
                   functional groups.

     C.          Discuss the acidity and basicity of these functional groups and the effects of substituents.

     D.          Identify these functional groups through analysis of spectroscopic data (NMR, IR and mass spectrometry).

4.    Apply the fundamental rules of nomenclature.

     A.                Name and draw the homologous series of carbonyl functional groups and sulfur derivatives for the first twelve carbons in the series (C1
                        through to C12).

     B.                Use the rules to name and draw amines, alcohols, thiols, sulfides, disulfides, sulfoxides, sulfones, ethers and major carbonyl functional

5.    Demonstrate an understanding of the important  organic reactions.

     A.                Explain the important reactions of amines, alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones.

     B.                Use mechanisms to explain the major reactions and synthesis of amines, alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones.

     C.                Explain the important nucleophilic addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones.

     D.                Use mechanisms to explain the major reactions and synthesis of aldehydes and ketones.

     E.                Describe the nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions of carboxylic acid and their derivatives.

     F.                Use mechanisms to explain the major reactions and  synthesis of carboxylic acid and their derivatives.

6.    Demonstrate an understanding of the major α-substitution and carbonyl condensation reactions.   

     A.          Discuss enolate ions and the keto-enol tautomerization of carbonyl compounds to undergo chemical reactions.

     B.          Describe the mechanisms of α-substitution and carbonyl condensation reactions.

     C.          Explain the importance of enolate ions in malonic ester synthesis and acetoacetic ester synthesis.

     D.          Explain how aldol and enone products are produced through simple and mixed condensation reactions.

     E.           Describe Claisen, mixed Claisen and Dieckmann condensation reactions.

7.   Apply organic chemistry principles to biochemical macromolecules.

     A.          Carbohydrates:

                  1.    Draw and identify the major monosaccharides and disaccharides and polysaccharides.

                  2.    Explain the different epimeric, anomeric centers and mutarotations in reference to Howarth and Fischer projections.

                  3.    Describe the major reactions of monosaccharides and disaccharides.

     B.          Lipids:

                  1.    Explain the difference between fats and oils, saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids.

                  2.    Draw and recognize the  structures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, glycerol, phospholipids, sphingolipids, steroids,
                         prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes.

                  3.    Explain the major reactions of fatty acids, lipids and steroids.

     C.          Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes and Nucleic Acids:

                  1.    Recognize and draw the amino acid and zwitterionic forms and predict the structure of  peptide linkages between  amino acid.

                  2.     Identify the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins and the types of bonding involved.

                  3.    Discuss the simple classification of enzymes by their function and reaction and recognize the terms of selectivity active site, inhibition,
                         denaturation and cofactors.

                  4.    Discuss and identify the common aromatic heterocycles and nucleic acids found in biological systems.

8.    Apply organic principles to polymers.

     A.          Recognize naturally occurring polymers including fibers.

     B.          Draw and recognize polymers from their monomeric units.

     C.          Describe the step-growth synthesis of polyamides and polyesters.

     D.          Recognize characteristics of common polymeric materials and classify them, their properties  and recycling uses.

     E.          Demonstrate understanding of the functional characteristics of common polymers.

     F.           Explain the difference between addition and condensation polymers.

     G.          Explain the differences between thermoset and thermoplastic resins, polymeric fiber, films and additives.

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